Psynopsis issue on Health Provider Wellness: Call for Submissions

Psynopsis is calling for articles on Health Provider Wellness. We would like to focus on the broad array of health care providers, therefore articles relating to psychologists’ well-being are welcome, but research, commentaries and initiatives with other health care workers (for ex., physicians, nurses, pharmacists) are also of interest, especially if the research findings or strategies could help inform the practice of psychologists with these specific populations. You can also describe your experience offering services to health care workers, lessons learned and important contributions psychology can make.

Please submit your 400-900 word articles by January 31, 2022.

For more information, go to

Spotlight: Joanna Collaton, CPA Student Representative, Past President of the Student Section, and MindPad editor

Joanna Collaton

Joanna Collaton photo
Joanna Collaton

“I’m enjoying [doing therapy] a lot, to the point where I can see myself doing this forever. What I like about it is that although it seems like you’re doing only one thing, there’s so much variety in the people you see and the approaches you take.

Joanna Collaton is probably too young to have done it ALL, but she really seems like someone who has – in the realm of psychology, academia, and at the CPA at least . She seems to have found her path already, doing therapy as part of her practicum at the University of Guelph. It’s likely that 40 years from now she will still be providing therapy to adolescents – I’m booking a follow-up appointment for 2062, when Joanna really will have done it ALL.

In academia, Joanna has a Masters in Public Health in Epidemiology from the University of Toronto, obtained well before the pandemic hit. She has a Masters in Psychology from the University of Guelph and is in the second year of her PhD at that university now.

With the CPA, she has been part of the Student Section executive for three years now – the first year, as Chair-Elect, which involved running the CPA’s Student Mentorship Program. Although she did this for just one year, pre-COVID, she took the knowledge she gained from it to create something new.

“I facilitated the program, and from what I learned doing that I ended up launching a mentorship program at Guelph, connecting first-year students and upper-year students. It was a nice way to take something I learned from CPA and translate it to my home institution. We started it the first year of COVID, when it was hard for students to connect because they weren’t meeting anyone. It was another way to get people together and get the sense of community you would normally get on campus.”

The following year, as Chair of the Student Section, Joanna oversaw the student executive in all their activities and spearheaded the introduction of a new position, the Justice, Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion executive. This is an area that Joanna is particularly passionate about and is happy to see this becoming more recognized in the field of psychology. This year, as Past Chair, she is currently editor-in-chief of MindPad, the CPA’s Student Newsletter that acts as a way for students to get involved in the academic publishing process.


The Psychological Concept that blew you away when you first heard about it?
I think a lot about the concept of post-traumatic growth. It’s the idea that someone can go through a traumatic event, and it shifts their perspectives on life and on themselves. I feel like the stereotypical understanding of this is when someone has a heart attack and then becomes a different and more evolved person in some way. But we see it across many trauma events, and I think it speaks to the resilience of people, and it’s amazing to me how people have been surviving horrible things throughout human history, and are still able to find purpose and satisfaction and doing values-driven work in spite of these life-altering events.

You can listen to only one musician / group for the rest of your life – who is it?
My partner used to be in a band and he likes to sing around the house and play the guitar. We’re getting married, so I will be listening to him for the rest of my life. So I’m going to say him.

Do you have a favourite book?
Right now I have a favourite author, Sally Rooney. She’s a fellow millennial, and writes very interestingly about relationships, mental health, and feminism in a way that I blow through her books in a day. Every time she puts something out, I have to get it right away.

If you could spend a day in someone else’s shoes, who would that be and why?
I was thinking about Marsha Linehan, the creator of Dialectical Behaviour Therapy. I have so much respect for what she’s done for the field. Just having watched her interviews and trainings, she’s such a character and brilliant person it would be great to know what that’s like!

You can become an expert at something outside of psychology – what would that be?
Cooking. I’ve improved my cooking skills tenfold over the course of the pandemic. I want to get to a place where I don’t even have to look at the recipe, that I know what goes with what and what builds flavours at different levels. I want to get to the point where I can be an obnoxious foodie, and a sommelier. Like, I want that to be my personality.

“Students don’t always have the opportunity to see behind the scenes – what it’s like to submit to a journal, and what the review process is like. I’m the editor-in-chief, then we have four associate editors, and a team of about 35 reviewers who review both in English and French. The goal is to publish mostly academic-type work that students are working on that they want to disseminate so other students will read it. We typically publish one or two issues a year, and last year they were able to publish only one. Things have kind of slowed down in some ways as people are overburdened with stuff right now! With that said, we accept submissions on a rolling basis – for this issue, up to February 28th.”

At Guelph, Joanna is the Graduate Student Representative for the CPA, the liaison between CPA and the grad students at Guelph. This is something that has, understandably, become a much different position since COVID sent everyone home two years ago.

“It’s been hard! This is my third year as the Grad Student Rep for CPA. The first year we planned to run an event where we were teaching students how to create academic posters, and that had to be canceled – it was scheduled for March 2020. We were able to run that event last year but did it virtually. Recently, we partnered with an academic advisor in the undergraduate program at Guelph and we did a tour of the CPA career hub with students and showed them the options and how to navigate through it.”

As she nears the end of her PhD, Joanna already has a really good sense of what she wants her career path to be. She’s doing a practicum at Step Stone Psychology in Toronto, and goes there in-person a few days a week. Sometimes that still involves seeing clients virtually, from a quiet room in the building, and other times it’s in-person, from a distance, separated by layers of PPE. Joanna sees children, adolescents, and emerging adults both for psychoeducational assessments and for therapy. She specializes in helping young people who have gone through a traumatic experience.

“I think at one point I would have thought ‘okay, I’m just doing therapy’ but there are so many different types of therapy, and assessment is a huge world. Then there’s all these other parts of it that keep everything fresh and interesting, like consultation, research, and advocacy,”

Advocacy is a passion for Joanna, who is a part of the VIP (Very Involved Psychologist) program with the CPA’s Director of Policy and Public Affairs, Glenn Brimacombe.

“A lot of students I work with are really interested in advocacy work, and seeing it move into more of a central tenet of psychology education. That’s why I’ve enjoyed getting to know Glenn and seeing the portfolio that he’s started up in the last little while at the CPA.”

At the last CPA convention, Joanna co-facilitated a workshop on “How to Do the Work: Advocacy Skills for Psychology Students” with Glenn and Alejandra Botia and Alanna Chu, two other members of the student section executive. It taught some hands-on skills, like how to approach an MP, or how to speak to a journalist. The workshop dealt with a number of issues related to public policy – what is it, and how is it formed? How can a psychologist, a student, a researcher influence public policy?

Of course that workshop was delivered virtually, as so many things are now. Just like the events Joanna organizes as a Student Rep at Guelph, like a lot of the therapy she delivers to adolescent clients in her practicum, and like the mentorship program and MindPad submissions have been for years. In the years to come, we are all likely to continue doing online therapy, no matter how much clients and therapists are able to return to in-person sessions. Either way, with her drive to succeed and her track record of attaining her goals, Joanna is poised to embark on a promising career – the one she can see herself doing for the rest of her life. Or, at least, until retirement – we’ll re-evaluate in 40 years!


What is this?

Psychology in the Military (a Section of the Canadian Psychological Association) and the Royal Military College of Canada are hosting a live conference (via Zoom) specifically for undergraduate students studying psychology. The goal of this conference is to increase education and awareness of psychological research relevant to the military and to provide undergraduate students the opportunity to present their research in a professional forum.

Who can present?

Undergraduate psychology students presently completing their thesis on a topic that has implications for the military or para-military (e.g., police, firefighters, coastguard) context. This includes students in all psychology disciplines (e.g., clinical, cognitive, educational, family, health, personnel, sports) conducting research on a topic that is relevant to any aspect of the military or para-military (e.g., leadership, mental health, performance, relationships, security, training).

Who can attend?

Fellow students, professors, researchers, clinicians, practitioners, or anyone with an interest in military-related research and the promotion of student professional development.

When is it?

Late April 2022 (exact date and time to be determined)

What’s in it for me?

  • Improve your communication skills by summarizing research in a concise manner
  • Gain public speaking experience in front of a virtual live audience.
  • Build your list of peer-reviewed presentations to include on your résumé.
  • Share your research with an audience that has a focussed interest in the military.
  • Get to know others who may be interested in the same or related topic areas.
  • Have a chance to win $250 for the best undergraduate research presentation.

How to apply


  • Submit an Abstract (see details below) via email to by 28 February 2022 (1800 Pacific Time).


  • Send email to indicating your interest in attending by 1 April 2022 (1800 Pacific Time).


Abstract Requirements

All abstract submissions must be structured using the following headings, and must not exceed 350 words (inclusive of the headings):

  • Purpose & Rationale: describe the objective of your research/study, and any supporting rationale (e.g., prior conflicting findings, theory, current events) for examining the topic.
  • Methodology: describe the sample, measures, and procedure you used to collect data for your study.
  • Summary of Findings: summarize key findings as they relate to your main hypotheses.
  • Military or Para-military Application: describe how and why your findings are relevant to the military or para-military (e.g., similarities in sample, contextual elements, and/or significance of the issue or topic to the military or para-military).

Abstracts can be written in English or French.

Oral Presentation Requirements

 All presentations will take the form of a thumbnail sketch or concise representation or summary of your research. You will be allowed a maximum of 5 slides and 5 minutes per presentation. The goal is to communicate your research in a manner that is focussed, easy to understand, and engages the audience.

Two new CPA Sections – Black Psychology and Psychology Careers and Professionals

The CPA is excited to announce the that two new sections have received Board approval. The Section on Black Psychology, led by founding Chairs Kafui Sawyer and Anita Shaw, sees its mission as promoting and advancing practitioners, educators, students, and scientists of psychology who identify as Black and who are concerned about psychology-related issues that impact Black people. The purpose of the Psychology Careers and Professionals Section, led by founding Chair Shahnaz Winer, is to create a professional home and area within the CPA for individuals who have pursued careers in the field of psychology that are outside of the academic and healthcare delivery settings, while also providing mentorship to CPA students and members interested in pursuing and learning more about the various career options available to psychology graduates. For more information on both sections please visits the Sections page here:

Welcome Kerri Ritchie, Ph.D., C.Psych., CPA President-Elect

Dr. Kerri Ritchie

The CPA is happy to announce that Kerri Ritchie, Ph.D., C.Psych., has been elected by the CPA board as President for 2022-2023. Dr. Ritchie will serve as President-Elect between now and the Annual General Meeting, at which point she will replace current president Professor Ada Sinacore. While all members of the Board are elected by the membership, the President is elected by the Board. Dr. Ritchie’s appointment resulted from a process inviting all members of the Board to submit a candidacy statement to the Board for consideration. After a review, the Board voted to elect Dr. Ritchie from among the candidates.

Dr. Ritchie is a bilingual psychologist registered with the College of Psychologists of Ontario in Counseling, Clinical and Health Psychology. She has worked at The Ottawa Hospital since 2001, where she currently provides frontline clinical services on the inpatient surgical, medical, oncology, and obstetrical services. She has been the Director of Training of the accredited psychology internship program since 2008. Her research is in the area of staff and physician wellness in health care. She is also a clinical professor in the School of Psychology at the University of Ottawa.

Dr. Ritchie says,

“I have had the privilege of being involved with members of CPA and in various ways including membership in the Psychologists in Hospitals and Health Centers Health Psychology and Behavioural Medicine Sections, Chair of the Education and Training Committee, Co-Chair of the Human Rights and Social Justice Committee. Chair of the Medical Assistance in Dying Practice Guidelines, and co-chair of the Title working groups. I have served on CPAs board both as a partner representative (CCPPP) and, currently, as the Director Representing Education.

Our discipline is diverse, and across all of the areas of psychology we have rich, multifaceted, and essential roles to play. I am hoping my experiences within CPA and within my workplace have positioned me to work with the Board and the CPA staff to support our members and our profession during this truly unique time in our history.”

Congratulations Dr. Ritchie, we look forward to your leadership and collaboration in the coming year.


Alcohol, Other Drugs & Mental Health (Dual Diagnosis) Training ONLINE & Live (12 Hr Advanced)


Substance Abuse and Mental Health Interventions

Location: Online 24/7
Event Link:
Cost of Dual Diagnosis Training is reduced from $390 to $195 (50% off). Buy ONLINE program for $195, get LIVE free or Buy LIVE program for $195, get ONLINE free.

George Patriki provides both LIVE and ONLINE training & professional development for the health care, welfare and social service industries on the Gold Coast, throughout Australia and the globe…

Click here to register and pay for the LIVE or ONLINE training.

Certificate of attendance and qualification for 12 points (ONLINE) or up to 15 points (Live) of CPD (Continuing Professional Development) for your professional peak body (APS, ACA, AASW, CPA, PACFA, ACWA etc), requires completion of the full 2 days of intensive training live or online.

This advanced training covers all of the current evidence based, best practice in the Alcohol & Other Drugs (AOD) and Mental Health from an integrated, holistic framework

In June 2018, S.A.M.H.I. launched its 6 module, Self Paced, 12 hour Dual Diagnosis Training. This training will equip workers to be able to deliver brief and early interventions to people struggling with substance abuse and mental health issues, as well as advanced psychotherapeutic skills. This is the same as the comprehensive 2 day advanced training that is being delivered live across Australia and online in 81 countries. –

This online Dual Diagnosis Training was launched in June 2018 on the learning online learning platform which provides lifetime login to the training. They have thousands of courses and millions of students worldwide.

Module 1. Drugs & Effects

  • Cycle of Addiction
  • Alcohol
  • Drink & Drug Driving
  • Tobacco
  • Cannabis
  • Stimulants (Speed, Ice, Ecstasy, Cocaine)
  • Inhalants (volatile substances)

  • Module 2. Addictions & Mental Health
  • Dual Diagnosis
  • Integrative Holistic Model
  • Needs & Underlying Issues that drive addictions

  • Module 3. Harm Minimisation & Optimal Health
  • Pharmacotherapies
  • Orthomolecular Science, Functional Medicine & Optimal Health

  • Module 4. Neuropharmacology & Neurophysiology (Brain Works)
  • Neuroplasticity
  • Neurotransmitters
  • Psychosis vs Dissociation
  • Psychospirituality

  • Module 5. Trauma model & Keys to Treatment
  • Guilt vs Shame
  • Dealing with ambivalence

  • Module 6. Brief & Early Intervention and Tripod of Support
  • Stages of Change
  • Costs vs Benefits – doing a brief intervention

    Foundations of Animal-Assisted Interventions


    Foundations of Animal-Assisted Interventions
      Location: Online
      Contact Phone Number: (780) 666-9808
      Contact E-Mail:
      Event Link:

      This comprehensive training provides you with the foundational knowledge to ethically and effectively incorporate animals into your practice. The training is offered online through a variety of different forms – video lectures with closed captioning, downloadable slides and audio lectures. Learn your own way, in your own time and at your own pace.

      This training has been pre-approved by the CCPA for 24 continuing education credits and offers a certificate of completion once all course requirements have been met.

      Start your journey into animal-assisted interventions today!



    CPA’s 83rd Annual Convention & Tradeshow – Calgary, Alberta

    June 17 – 19, 2022

    CPA 2022 Calgary Conference Logo

    Location: Calgary, Alberta

    The CPA is now accepting Abstracts for its 83nd Annual National Convention. Taking place in Calgary, from June 17th – 19th with Pre-Convention Workshops on June 16th, this is an event not to be missed!

    Abstract Submissions:

    Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) Teacher Training Intensive Online

    April 1-14

    Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) Teacher Training Intensive Online
      Location: Online
      Contact Phone Number: (647) 524-6216
      Contact E-Mail:
      Event link:

      Train to facilitate MBSR programs. This is the second module of the Centre’s MBSR Facilitation Certificate Program. The course is open to all MBSR facilitators-in-training who meet the prerequisites. For more details, visit:

      This course is approved by the CPA to offer 52.5 CECs for psychologists.

      April 1-14, 2022
      Mandatory Orientation Session: Friday, April 1, 2022 | 12pm – 1:30pm ET
      Session 1: Wednesday, April 6, 2022 | 10am – 5pm ET
      Session 2: Thursday, April 7, 2022 | 10am – 5pm ET
      Session 3: Friday, April 8, 2022 | 10am – 5pm ET
      Session 4: Monday, April 11, 2022 | 10am – 5pm ET
      Session 5: Tuesday, April 12, 2022 | 10am – 5pm ET
      Session 6: Thursday, April 14, 2022 | 10am – 5pm ET
      Registration closes April 1, 2022 at 9am ET

      Fees: $2,250
      Registration closes April 1, 2022 at 9am ET

      Register here:

    MBCT Teacher Training Intensive Online

    March 21-31, 2022

    MBCT Teacher Training Intensive Online
      Location: Online
      Contact Phone Number: (647) 524-6216
      Contact E-Mail:
      Event link:

      Train to facilitate MBCT programs in an immersive online atmosphere with MBCT co-developer Zindel Segal. Enrolment is open to healthcare professionals and social service workers who have a clinical background and a mindfulness meditation practice.
      This course is approved by the CPA to offer 51 CECs for psychologists.

      March 21-31, 2022
      Mandatory Orientation Session: Monday, March 21, 2022 | 12pm – 1:30pm ET
      Session 1: Wednesday, March 23, 2022 | 10am – 5pm ET
      Session 2: Thursday, March 24, 2022 | 10am – 5pm ET
      Session 3: Friday, March 25, 2022 | 10am – 5pm ET
      Session 4: Monday, March 28, 2022 | 10am – 5pm ET
      Session 5: Tuesday, March 29, 2022 | 10am – 5pm ET
      Session 6: Thursday, March 31, 2022 | 10am – 5pm ET
      Registration closes March 20, 2022 at 11:59pm ET

      Fees: $2,050
      Registration closes March 20, 2022 at 11:59pm ET

      Register here: https: and learn more about the course and it’s prerequisites here:

    CBT Meets Mindfulness Online

    March 1 & 3

    Centre for Mindfulness Studies
      Location: Online
      Contact Phone Number: (647) 524-6216
      Contact E-Mail:
      Event link:

      Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is the most widely used and empirically supported psychotherapy for many mental illnesses, including depression and anxiety, and has also been shown to prevent relapse. However, CBT is not monolithic or frozen in time and continues to grow and evolve, with mindfulness increasingly becoming a core component of the more recent “third wave” cognitive therapies.

      This course is an introduction to the current landscape of cognitive therapies and is also a prerequisite for the MBCT Teacher Training. It is approved by the CPA to offer 6 CECs for psychologists.

      Tuesday, Thursday
      Session 1: March 1, 2022 | 11am – 2pm
      Session 2: March 3, 2022 | 11am – 2pm

      Fee: $350 and learn more about the course here:

    Mindfulness Core Concepts

    February 14, 16 & 18

    Mindfulness Core Concepts
      Location: Online
      Contact Phone Number: (647) 524-6216
      Contact E-Mail:
      Event link:

      Are you interested in continuing your professional development in the area of mindfulness and mindfulness-based programs?

      This training is for professionals to learn about the use of mindfulness in healthcare, social services, education, and the community. It is also a prerequisite course for both our MBCT and MBSR Teacher Trainings.

      This course is approved by the CPA to offer 6 CECs (Continuing Education Credits) to psychologists.

      Monday, Wednesday, Friday (Online)
      Session 1: February 14, 2022 | 10am – 1pm ET
      Session 2: February 16, 2022 | 10am – 1pm ET
      Session 3: February 18, 2022 | 10am – 1pm ET

      Fee: $475

      Register here: and learn more about the course here:

    Avoid the 5 Most Common Mistakes Therapists Make that Keep Children and Teens Stuck in Anxiety

    February 8, 2022

    Avoid the 5 Most Common Mistakes Therapists Make that Keep Children and Teens Stuck in Anxiety
      Location: Online
      Contact Phone Number: (587) 205-9291
      Contact E-Mail:
      Event link:

      We are often inundated with so much information about anxiety that it’s hard to know what approach is best. The most popular strategies are not necessarily the most effective and can actually stall our clients’ progress or even worsen their anxiety.

      For example, did you know that the use of fear hierarchies can actually slow client progress?

      It’s time to take control of your professional development and become a highly effective therapist when working with children and teens struggling with anxiety. That’s exactly why this free workshop was developed, exclusively for mental health practitioners, to learn about five of the most common mistakes to avoid and how to start making immediate, meaningful progress instead.

      You’ll learn from our master anxiety expert & Director who has taught professionals about anxiety since 2012!

    Identifying and working through problematic parenting patterns in child and adolescent treatment

    February 7, 2022

    SickKids CCMH Learning Institute
      Location: Online
      Contact Phone Number: (416) 317-4996
      Contact E-Mail:
      Event link:

      Facilitator: Adele Lafrance, PhD, C.Psych.
      Date: February 7, 2022
      Time: 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. EST
      Fee: General – $290, Student – $265 – use the code CPA10 during checkout to receive a 10% savings off the fee

      This training is suitable for:
      Mental Health Professionals: psychotherapists, counsellors, psychologists, social workers.
      Medical Professionals: nurses, psychiatrists, pediatricians, family doctors.
      Direct Service Workers: Drop in workers, shelter and hostel workers, child and youth workers, youth justice workers.
      Educators: Teachers, ECE, school administration, support staff.

      Level of training: Introductory/intermediate

      Client age category: For professionals who work with clients aged birth to adulthood.

      COVID-19 related content: Dr. Lafrance will discuss the impact of COVID stress on the expression of problematic patterns.

      Participants of this webinar will receive a copy of Dr. Adele Lafrance’s book ” Emotion-Focused Family Therapy: A Transdiagnostic Model for Caregiver-Focused Interventions” delivered to their work/home!*

      *Registration includes a copy of Dr. Adele Lafrance’s book. Please note: additional shipping fees apply for international participants (outside Canada and the US)

      Description: This training is intended for clinicians and therapists working with parents of children and adolescents. In addition to an emotion-focused conceptualization of problematic parenting patterns, Dr. Lafrance will present tools and techniques to promote attitudinal and behavioral change in caregivers in a way that is supportive and productive.

      This training also includes a module with practical strategies to manage challenging or conflictual co-parenting dynamics that impact on child/adolescent development and mental health.

      Learning objectives:
      – Identify markers of emotional processes underlying problematic patterns of caregiving / therapy-interfering behaviours in caregivers
      – Apply tools and techniques to transform problematic emotional processes fueling problematic patterns of behavior in caregivers
      – Apply tools and techniques to increase cooperation and collaboration between co-parents in serious conflict
      – Discuss ethico-legal considerations related to increased caregiver involvement, including when caregivers are severely under-resourced

      This training is recognized by the International Institute for EFFT for a full-day of in-person training.

    Winter Trauma & Attachment Conference Training in the ITATM Protocol

    January 17 – 21, 2022

    Winter Trauma & Attachment Conference Training in the ITATM Protocol
      Location: Live Online
      Contact Phone Number: (905) 684-9333
      Contact E-Mail:
      Event link:–attachment-conference.html

      2022 Winter Trauma & Attachment Conference – Integrative Trauma & Attachment Treatment Model (ITATM)
      January 17 – 21, 2022 ITATM & CTIC Stream

      Integrative Trauma and Attachment Treatment Model (#ITATM) ® Clinical Stream – Required for Trauma and Attachment certification Clinical Stream

      Part 1: January 17 & 18, 2022 9:00 – 4:00 EST. Training will be live online. Part 1 is also available as a pre-recorded distance learning option.

      • Day 1: Foundations of Trauma and Attachment (core CTIP & CTIC training)
      • Day 2: Phase-Based Clinical Applications to Promote Healing and Integration of Trauma and Attachment Dysregulation

      Part 2: January 19 – 21, 2022 9:00 – 4:30 EST. Training will be live online.

      • Day 1: Integrative Trauma and Attachment Treatment Model (ITATM) Trauma Processing Demonstration Part 1 *Must have completed Part 1: Foundations of Trauma & Phase-Based Clinical Applications prior to registering.
      • Days 2 & 3: Integrative Trauma and Attachment Treatment Model (ITATM) Trauma Processing Demonstration Part 2 & 3 *Must have completed Part 1: Foundations of Trauma, Phase-Based Clinical Applications & Day 1 Part 2 prior to registering.

      Learn more & register:–attachment-conference.html

    Advocacy, Policy, And Public Affairs For Psychologists With Glenn Brimacombe

    Advocacy, Policy, And Public Affairs For Psychologists With Glenn Brimacombe
    Glenn Brimacombe is the director of Policy and Public Affairs at the Canadian Psychological Association, and has just created an advocacy guide for the CPA’s member psychologists to help them in their efforts to speak with MPPs and get their message out. He joins Eric (who just created a companion Working-With-The-Media guide for members) to discuss advocacy and the role of psychologists in public policy making.

    Launch of Members Only Advocacy Toolkit for Psychology

    In addition to the advocacy work that the CPA undertakes on your behalf, the Association strongly believes it is important to invest in, and equip, our members and affiliates with the knowledge, strategies and tools they need to be an effective advocate. For this reason, the CPA has created the Very Involved Psychologist (VIP) and Very Involved Psychological Researcher (VIPR) program. As part of that program, we have developed a toolkit to assist members in building their advocacy skill set and/or confirming their approach.

    Non-Members can read more about the toolkit here –

    Members can access the toolkit by signing into the CPA’s Members Only site here –

    Mental Health Parity Pledge (December 2021)

    The Canadian Alliance on Mental Illness and Mental Health (CAMIMH) issued a press release calling on all Canadians to sign a Parity Pledge which will be sent to your Member of Parliament – which calls on the federal government to pass legislation (a Mental Health and Substance Use Health Care For All Parity Act) which will provide funding to expand access to accessible and inclusive publicly-funded mental health and substance use health care programs and services that are evidence-based.  See the news conference .  Please consider signing the Pledge and/or forwarding it to your colleagues, friends and family.

    New Minority Federal Government (November 2021)

    With a new minority government in place and a recent Speech From the Throne, the CPA has begun the process of engaging a number of relevant Ministers (i.e., Mental Health & Addictions; Health; Innovation, Science & Industry; Environment & Climate Change; Justice & Attorney-General; Indigenous Services) on a range of legislative and policy issues of importance to the CPA.  As a member of the Canadian Consortium for Research (CCR), a letter was sent to the Minister of Innovation, Science & Industry.

    Press Release: The Canadian Psychological Association (CPA) urges all governments to answer the call for amendments to the Criminal Code of Canada and ban conversion therapy.

    Ottawa, ON (December 2, 2021). At the Canadian Psychological Association (CPA), we heartily welcomed Minister Lametti’s proposed amendments to the Criminal Code of Canada, announced this week, which would ban conversion therapy in Canada.

    In 2015[1], the CPA called for a ban on any therapy with the goal of “repairing” or “converting” an individual’s sexual orientation, regardless of age. Not only does scientific research fail to support the efficacy of such therapies, but it also shows that these therapies can lead to anxiety, depression, negative self-image, feelings of personal failure, difficulty sustaining relationships, and sexual dysfunction.

    In 2018[2], the CPA joined psychological associations around the world in a statement about human sexuality and gender diversity. Says CPA President, Dr. Ada Sinacore, “among the problems impacting the health and well being of LGBTQI2S+ people worldwide is the continued use of conversion and reparative therapies which are not only ineffective but cause significant psychological harm.” As noted in the 2018 statement, human experience includes a range of sexual identities and orientations which are not mental disorders and do not have to be changed or repaired through intervention.

    Through its Guiding Principles and Strategic Plan, the CPA has committed to policy and activity that is guided by respect, integrity, diversity, and inclusion. Says CPA’s CEO, Dr. Karen Cohen, “prejudice and discrimination have no place in any of the world’s societies.  Societies prosper by supporting the health and wellbeing of all their peoples, no matter their identities.”

    The amendment proposed this week by Minister Lametti to ban the use of conversion therapy has the full support of the CPA. We encourage all federal MPs, and every member of the senate, to vote in favour of this important step forward for a more inclusive Canada.


    Contact the CPA:

    Communications Specialist Eric Bollman
    613-237-2144 ext 337
    1-888-472-0657 ext 337



    This is your brain on screens – i-Minds author Dr. Mari Swingle talks Instagram

    This is your brain on screens - i-Minds author Dr. Mari Swingle talks Instagram
    Dr. Mari Swingle wrote the book ‘i-Minds: How and Why Constant Connectivity is Rewiring Our Brains and What to Do About it’. We discuss the revelations from Facebook research that shows Instagram’s negative effect on young girls, in particular – something Dr. Swingle has been writing about for years.

    Pandemic Disinformation, Suicide, and Science Up First With Dr. Tyler Black

    Pandemic Disinformation, Suicide, and Science Up First With Dr. Tyler Black
    Dr. Tyler Black is a psychiatrist who specializes in suicidology. When, early in the pandemic, wild claims were being made about the spike in suicide we were sure to see as a result of lockdowns, he pushed back with his expertise in the field (spoiler alert – he was right, and suicide actually decreased). He became one of the experts at Science Up First, combatting disinformation online.

    “How to Do the Work: Advocacy Skills for Psychology Students”

    Attaining and engaging in advocacy skills enables students to make significant contributions to society and public policy, including the ability to connect, collaborate, inspire, and work with their communities. This workshop will provide opportunities for students to gain and continually develop skills in the following key areas: leadership, advocacy, and networking.

    Presented by: Joanna Collaton, Alejandra Botia, Alanna K Chu, and Glenn Brimacombe.

    Originally Presented as part of the CPA’s Virtual Convention, June 22, 2021.

    2022 Call for Applications: Jacobs Foundation Research Fellowship Program

    Deadline for submission: January 16, 2022.

    The Jacobs Foundation Research Fellowship Program is a globally competitive fellowship program for early and mid-career researchers whose work is dedicated to improving the learning and development of children and youth worldwide. The relevant disciplines include, but are not limited to, education sciences, psychology, economics, sociology, behavioral science, computer science, pedagogy, linguistics, neurosciences, and science of learning.
    Particularly encouraged to apply are scholars who seek to combine multiple levels of analysis and engage in interdisciplinary work. A special focus lies on work to understand and embrace variability in learning; promote the generation, transfer, and practical application of evidence on human learning and development or increase the capacity to scale up effective education policies and practices.
    The Jacobs Foundation is especially interested in the following questions:

    • How do variations in individuals and contextual factors influence learning and development and learning outcomes?
    • How can we design for learner variability at scale to enable all children to reach their potential as learners and in life?
    • How can we produce interventions that reduce growing inequalities in children’s learning and overcome disparities in the impacts of digital technologies?
    • How can we address the role of data to help learners and teachers make informed decisions about their learning and teaching?
    • What school-level learning approaches, environments, and experiences are effective in improving learning outcomes in heterogeneous student groups?

    Fellowships are awarded to highly talented and innovative early and mid-career researchers who have received their PhD within the past 10 years. Funding from Jacobs Foundation Research Fellowships is awarded directly to the fellow’s institution and may be used by the fellow over a three-year period to cover a portion of the fellow’s salary and for any purpose in support of the fellow’s research, such as assistants’ salaries, equipment, technical assistance, professional travel, or trainee support.

    In addition to providing fellows with independent and competitive funding, the program offers a wide range of non-financial benefits.

    For further information and to submit an online application, please visit: Call for Applications 2022

    To find out more about the Jacobs Foundation Strategy 2030 please visit Jacobs Foundation

    The Science of Psychedelics: Training for Medical Professionals

    Ongoing – Homestudy

    MD Media Inc

    Location: Online
    Contact Phone Number: (647) 919-3615
    Contact E-Mail:
    Event Link:

    The Science of Psychedelics: Training for Medical Professionals has been approved for 8.0 AMA PRA Category 1 Credits™ through the joint providership of CME Consultants and MD Media Inc., as well as accreditation through the American Psychological Association (APA), the California Board of Registered Nursing, the California Board of Behavioral Sciences, and the Oregon Board of Naturopathic Medicine (OBNM).


    Music-Integrated Therapy Training: Winter 2022 Group

    January 9, 2022

    Creativity in Practice: Free Webinar
      Location: Online
      Contact Phone Number: (647) 370-0263
      Contact E-Mail:
      Event link:

      Do you love music and wish you could integrate it into your clinical work to offer clients a new, creative approach?

      Learn how to bring the benefits of music to your practice with the 12-Week Online Music-Integrated Therapy Training!

      In this powerful research-based and experiential program, you’ll:

      -Understand how music can meet the unique needs of your clients
      -Gain practical skills you can use right away, designed especially for your musicality, your approach, and your clients.
      -Learn how to integrate anti-oppressive clinical-musical practices
      -Explore your musical history and preferences, and learn how these inform your musical-clinical work
      -Learn how to use music with clients in-person and online
      Plus so much more…

      Music-Integrated Therapy Training meets you where you are at musically: it’s for people who have never picked up an instrument, highly trained musicians, and everyone in between.

      Winter 2022 Group starts January 9th
      12 Weekly Meetings on Tuesdays from 10:00-11:30amPST, beginning January 18, 2022

      Register Now to Receive Special Introductory Pricing
      Payment Plans Available

      *Looking for more personalized attention? The Individual Training Program is also on offer. For more information, visit:

    Publication opportunity – Mind Pad seeking student submissions

    Are you looking to boost your CV? Do you have an article or ongoing research that you would like to share?

    Mind Pad is seeking submissions for its next issue. Mind Pad is CPA’s student-written, edited, and published newsletter. We are looking for submissions that are 800 to 2000 words in length.
    The content of the submission should be of interest to all who are practicing and studying psychology, but the primary audience of Mind Pad is psychology students. Mind Pad publishes a range of submissions, including but not limited to:
    – Original research summaries
    – Review summaries
    – Psychology career-related articles
    – Reflections on new trends in psychology or psychology research
    – Reflections on psychology in the media
    – Reports on conferences or workshops attended

    Empirical papers are prioritized.

    Submission should follow APA formatting guidelines and may include graphs, tables, and photographs. For more information on submission procedures, visit:

    Articles should be submitted to Joanna Collaton (
    Submissions are accepted on an ongoing basis; however, the deadline to submit for consideration in the next issues of Mind Pad is February 1, 2022.

    Please contact Joanna Collaton ( with any questions.

    Joanna Collaton
    Editor-in-Chief, Mind Pad
    Past-Chair, Section for Students in Psychology
    Canadian Psychological Association (CPA)

    “Psychology Works” Resources: Training to Become a Clinical Neuropsychologist in Canada

    What is Clinical Neuropsychology?

    Clinical neuropsychology is a speciality within clinical psychology that focuses on understanding the relationship between brain and behaviour through research and clinical services.

    Who is a clinical neuropsychologist?

    A clinical neuropsychologist is a regulated health professional who uses evidence-based practice in the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of a variety of neurological, medical, and psychiatric disorders that affect cognition. Clinical neuropsychologists may also provide services to optimize cognitive functioning in healthy individuals. Subspecialties in neuropsychology include geriatric, pediatric, and forensic. There is a range of career opportunities including within hospitals, private practice, and academia; within these settings, a neuropsychologist’s work may include any combination of clinical, research, teaching, supervision, and consultation activities.

    How do I become a clinical neuropsychologist?

    Clinical neuropsychologists must obtain a PhD or PsyD degree to be licensed to practice clinical psychology in Canada (licensure requirements vary across provinces) and declare competency to practice within the speciality area of clinical neuropsychology.

    What is the typical education path?

    Typically, a bachelor’s degree in a psychology or health related field is obtained prior to completing graduate school at the doctoral level at an accredited institution that offers specialized training in clinical neuropsychology. Many universities require completion of a master’s degree prior to doctoral training.

    What does graduate school in clinical neuropsychology entail?

    Graduate training includes three major components: course work, research, and clinical experience.

    Course work:

    Course work requirements depend on the program, but topics covered generally include: human neuropsychology, neuroanatomy, neuropsychological assessment, and neurorehabilitation. Completion of these courses is in addition to the required core clinical courses of the program such as foundational courses in clinical psychology, psychodiagnostics, psychotherapeutic intervention, and statistics. Students may also take courses to specialize in an age group (e.g., child and youth or adult and older adult) or select courses across the lifespan.


    Trainees must undertake major research projects (e.g., Master’s thesis, dissertation) in a topic area broadly related to brain and behaviour. As trainees are accepted into graduate programs under the supervision of a faculty member, topics are dependent on the supervisor’s research focus and can range from understanding the brain at the structural level via brain imaging to investigating the impact of a cognitive intervention in the community.

    Clinical experience:

    Trainees are offered a wide range of clinical experiences in clinical neuropsychological assessment and intervention across the lifespan or depending on a population of interest. Trainees are first exposed to clinical training through theory and practice in class. Under the supervision of practicing clinicians, trainees then complete clinical practica in a variety of approved settings (e.g., the clinical neuropsychology department of a hospital). Lastly, trainees complete a one-year, full-time residency in clinical neuropsychology or clinical psychology with a neuropsychology component (i.e., a major neuropsychology rotation) at an approved site (for a list of sites see

    What happens after graduate school?

    Graduates must complete registration examinations, and sometimes one year of supervised practice (requirement varies across provinces), in order to register with the College of Psychologists. There is also the opportunity for post-doctoral positions to gain additional training and to build research experience. Although more common in the United States, board certification for the specialization of clinical neuropsychology is available through the American Board of Clinical Neuropsychology, which is a division of the American Board of Professional Psychology.

    If you would like to learn more about the experience of a current trainee in clinical neuropsychology, you can reach out to the Student Representative of the CPA Clinical Neuropsychology section (for contact information see

    This resource has been prepared for the Canadian Psychological Association by Iris Yusupov, York University and the CPA’s Clinical Neuropsychology Executive Committee.

    The authors wish to extend a special thank you to Drs. Jill Rich and Mary Desrocher (faculty at York University) for their review of this factsheet.

    Date: October 29, 2021

    Your opinion matters! Please contact us with any questions or comments about any of the Psychology Works Resources:

    Canadian Psychological Association
    141 Laurier Avenue West, Suite 702
    Ottawa, Ontario    K1P 5J3
    Tel:  613-237-2144
    Toll free (in Canada):  1-888-472-0657

    Accreditation Panel Opens Public Commentary Period

    The CPA promotes excellence and innovation in psychological education through its accreditation standards and procedures for doctoral and internship programmes in professional psychology. The training standards are currently in the process of being revised and the Accreditation Panel is pleased to open the public commentary period for the proposed 6th revision of the CPA’s Accreditation Standards for Doctoral and Residency Programs in Professional Psychology. For more information on the process, and to view a copy of the draft document, please visit

    Comment period closes on December 31, 2021.

    Now receiving abstracts for Development 2022

    Development 2022, a Canadian Conference on Developmental Psychology hosted by the Pickering Centre for Research in Human Development, will precede the CPA’s Annual Convention at the Hyatt Regency on June 15th – 16th, 2022. Abstracts for Development 2022 can be submitted via the following link, beginning October 1st: Deadline for submissions is January 31, 2022.

    Dr. David Goldbloom’s new book We Can Do Better

    We Can Do Better: Urgent Innovations to Improve Mental Health Access and Care
    Dr. David Goldbloom’s new book We Can Do Better: Urgent Innovations to Improve Mental Health Access and Care lays out 8 different innovations that can improve access and care right now in Canada. The CPA’s director of policy and public affairs, Glenn Brimacombe, speaks to Dr. Goldbloom about his book and the future of mental health care in this country.

    “Psychology Works” Fact Sheet: Gender Dysphoria in Children

    Understanding Gender

    Before addressing the concept of gender dysphoria in children, some definitions related to gender are important to review. Gender identity is how a person identifies (internally) in their heart, head, and soul; as male, female, both or neither. Gender identity is “who you know yourself to be”; and is increasingly recognized as existing on a continuum, not on a binary. Gender expression is how a person expresses their gender to others (externally) through behavior, clothing, hairstyle, chosen name and pronouns.

    For most individuals, their assigned sex at birth (typically initially based on their external genitalia) is congruent with their physical body and their gender identity; the term cisgender is sometimes used to describe them. For individuals whose assigned sex at birth is not the same as their gender identity, the term transgender is sometimes used to describe them. Gender identity is impacted by biological, social, and psychological factors (Edwards-Leeper et al., 2016). One’s sense of their own gender identity begins to emerge during the preschool years; children learn gender constancy and stability during the early school age years (Brill & Peppler, 2008). Gender identity tends to stabilize in preadolescence, and with the onset of puberty, becomes increasingly fixed and consolidated during adolescence. Age 10-13 years appears to be an important developmental stage in which the gender identity of gender diverse youth is determined (Steensma et al., 2011).

    Understanding gender diversity is also important. Gender diverse, gender fluid, gender creative, and gender independent are all terms that have been offered to describe children and youth whose gender expression challenges (heteronormative) gender norms. Increasingly, researchers and clinicians have put forth the view that childhood gender nonconformity and gender variance should be understood as part of human diversity and not a reflection of pathology or disorder (e.g., Pyne, 2014). Being gender non- conforming or gender diverse is not a mental health problem. There is nothing wrong or harmful about having traits and behaving in ways that do not conform to gender norms, and children or youth who are gender diverse do not necessarily feel distress or dysphoria. Children and youth who consistently and persistently express a gender identity that is different from their assigned sex at birth, however, may be more likely to experience gender dysphoria (i.e., distress related to their physical body or assigned sex not being aligned with their authentic, internal sense of gender).

    What is gender dysphoria?

    Gender dysphoria is “discomfort or distress that is caused by a discrepancy between a person’s gender identity and that person’s sex assigned at birth and the associated gender role and/or primary and secondary sex characteristics” (WPATH SOC7, 2011). Gender dysphoria is a psychiatric diagnosis that replaced the (arguably more pathologizing) DSM-IV diagnosis of Gender Identity Disorder. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) outlines the criteria for gender dysphoria in children as follows: (A) a marked incongruence between one’s experienced and expressed gender and assigned gender (of at least 6 months’ duration) and (B) clinically significant distress or impairment in social, school, or other important areas of functioning associated with this incongruence.

    Of note, Rapid Onset Gender (ROGD) s not is not a diagnostic classification or subtype in either the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) or the International Classification of Diseases (ICD), nor is it under consideration for inclusion in future editions. There is no empirical support for the existence of ROGD and no evidence that ROGD aligns with the lived experiences of transgender children and adolescents (Coalition for the Advancement and Application of Psychological Science, July 2021 position statement). In addition to CAAPS, CPATH, WPATH, and APA have expressed concern about the use of ROGD as a pathologizing, invalidating, and harmful term that is not in line with evidence-based affirmative practices.

    The cause of gender “atypical” gender development and gender dysphoria are unknown (de Vries & Cohen-Kettenis, 2012). Estimating the prevalence of gender independence and gender dysphoria among children and youth is difficult due to barriers to research, treatment, and disclosure (Meier & Harris, APA fact sheet). It is not possible to predict whether gender independent children will come to identify as cisgender (non-trans) adults, as gender fluid into adulthood, or as transgender individuals who seek social and/or medical gender transition (Pyne, RHO fact sheet). Persistence, insistence, consistency of cross-gender identity, significant body dysphoria, and/or greater distress during puberty is more commonly seen among gender diverse children who go on to identify as transgender teens/adults (Edwards-Leeper et al., 2016, Ehrensaft, 2011).

    Treatment of Gender Dysphoria

    The World Professional Association of Transgender Health Standards of Care, Version 7 (WPATH SOC 7, 2011) offers guidance for mental health professionals in the care of gender diverse and transgender people, including children and youth. Version 8 of these Standards, due to come out in 2021, had not yet been released at the time of this update. In addition to WPATH, psychologists should be aware of practice guidelines from the Endocrine Society (Endocrine Treatment of Gender Dysphoric/ Gender- Incongruent Persons: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline, 2017), The Pediatric Endocrine Society (2017), and The American Psychological Association (Guidelines for Psychological Practice with Transgender and Gender Nonconforming People, 2015).

    Transgender youth have optimal outcomes when affirmed in their gender identity, through support by their families and their environment, as well as when they can access appropriate mental health and medical care. There is increasing evidence that gender affirming care, including social transition (gender expression, name, clothing), psychotherapy (affirmative models), and medical transition (hormone blockers or replacement, surgery to change sex characteristics) lessens distress, and improves mental health outcomes (Edwards-Leeper et al, 2016). In contrast, children and youth who are not able to freely express their gender in key contexts (family, school) appear to be at greater risk of negative psychosocial outcomes. Lack of parental support is a key area of distress for trans and gender diverse youth (for example, there is a 14x greater rate of attempted suicide among youth whose gender identity is not supported by parents; Travers et al., 2012).

    Evidence overwhelmingly indicates that children are “harmed by family and societal rejection and by attempts to change their gender identity or gender expression” (Minter, 2012, p. 422). Psychologists should be aware that The World Professional Association of Transgender Health (WPATH) has declared treatments that aim to change an individual’s gender identity or gender expression (sometimes referred to as “conversion therapies”) are not ethical. Beyond WPATH, other practice statements that condemn conversion therapy have been put forth, and several provinces (Manitoba, Nova Scotia, Ontario, PEI, as well as municipalities of Calgary and Vancouver) also done so. The federal government had been poised to ban conversion therapy prior to the 2021 Federal Election but was unsuccessful in obtaining enough legislative support to do so.

    Many youth with gender dysphoria will want or need to transition, which may involve social transition (changing dress, name, pronoun), and, for older youth and adolescents, medical transition (hormonal and surgical intervention; RHO fact sheet). Gender affirming treatment may take the form of hormone

    blockers or hormones or surgery, with the aim of bringing one’s physical body in line with their felt gender. The ability to transition (socially and medically) are often essential in the treatment of gender dysphoria. Gender affirming models of treatment, which aim to destigmatize gender variance, help children build resilience and become comfortable with themselves and their preferred identity, and help parents support their child, have been associated with better mental health outcomes among children and youth.

    What is the Psychologist’s Role?

    A psychologist can assist in doing an assessment to clarify a gender dysphoria diagnosis and to rule out or in other mental health concerns. The purpose of diagnostic clarification is not to pathologize or stigmatize but rather to validate and support access to gender affirming care including eligibility for medical treatment.

    Children with gender dysphoria and their families may benefit from psychological treatments aimed at helping them with mood- and anxiety-related problems, which are not uncommon, but may or may not be related to gender issues. Psychologists can help children and their families cope with distress related to gender dysphoria and associated problems, and situations where others are less understanding of the child’s self-expression and behaviour.

    The psychologist can also help the child and family navigate decisions regarding timing and extent of social and medical transition should they choose to pursue it. A psychologist also may help the child cope with any difficulties resulting from expressing their gender differently from their peers. Psychologists can provide opinions about a child’s eligibility and readiness for hormone blockers, and for adolescents’ eligibility and readiness for hormone therapy or gender affirming surgery.

    Parents and caregivers have increasingly been identified as an important system for intervention. The importance of family support and acceptance for transgender youth in terms of better mental health, self-esteem, and significantly decreased suicidality have been demonstrated in recent studies (e.g., Veale et al., 2015). Psychologists may provide assistance to parents in terms of helping them accept, validate and best support their child and their gender expression.

    Finally, psychologists can provide consultation to pediatricians and general medical practitioners about the development of gender identity, and guidance around gender affirming care and empirically validated practices for the care of gender diverse and transgender children and youth. Psychologists may also play an advocacy role for children and their families in ensuring the school environment and other systems (e.g., CFS) are accepting and accommodating of gender diversity.


    American Psychiatric Association. (2003). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

    Brill, S., & Peppler, R. (2008). The transgender child. A handbook for Families and Professionals. San Francisco, California: Cleis Press.

    Coalition for the Advancement and Application of Psychological Science (CAAPS) Position Statement on Rapid Onset Gender Dysphoria (ROGD), July 2021.

    de Vries, A., & Cohen-Kettenis, P.T. (2012) Clinical management of gender dysphoria in children and adolescents: the Dutch approach. J Homosex 59:301–320.

    Edwards-Leeper, L., Leibowitz, S., Sangganjanavanich, V. F., Singh, A., Gonsiorek, J. C., dickey, l. (2016). Affirmative Practice with Transgender and Gender Nonconforming Youth: Expanding the Model.

    Psychology of sexual orientation and gender diversity, 2016-06, Vol.3 (2), p.165-172

    Ehrensaft, D. (2011). Gender born, gender made: Raising healthy gender non-conforming children. Meier, C., & Harris, J. APA Fact Sheet: Gender diversity and transgender identity in children.

    Minter, S. (2012). Supporting transgender children: New legal, social, and medical approaches. Journal of Homosexuality, 59, 422-433.

    Pyne, J. (2014). Gender independent kids: A paradigm shift in approaches to gender non-conforming children. Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality, 23(1), 1-8.

    Pyne, J., and Rainbow Health Ontario (2015). RHO Fact Sheet: Supporting gender independent children and their families.

    Steensma TD, Biemond R, de Boer F, Cohen-Kettenis PT. Desisting and persisting gender dysphoria after childhood: a qualitative follow-up study. Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry 2011; 16:499–516.

    Travers R, Bauer G, Pyne J, Bradley K. For the Trans PULSE Project (2012). In: Gale, L., Papadimitriou M, editors. Impacts of strong parental support for trans youth: a report prepared for children’s aid society of Toronto and Delisle youth services.

    Veale, J. Saewyc, D., Frohard-Dourlent, H., Dobson, S., Clark, B & the Canadian Trans Youth Health Survey Research Group (2015). Being safe, being me: Results of the Canadian Trans Youth Health Survey.

    Vancouver, BC: Stigma and Resilience Among Vulnerable Youth Centre, School of Nursing, University of British Columbia.

    World Professional Association for Transgender Health (2011). Standards of care for the health of transsexual, transgender, and gender nonconforming people. Available at:


    Canadian Professional Association for Transgender Health (CPATH). CPATH is an interdisciplinary professional organization devoted to the health care of individuals with gender variant identities.

    World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH; formerly known as the Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association). WPATH is an international multidisciplinary professional association devoted to promoting evidence-based care for transgender health. WPATH provides clinical and ethical guidelines (Standards of Care, currently 7th edition, SOC7, 2011) for the care of transgender individuals and those with gender dysphoria. WPATH SOC8 (8th edition of the Standards of Care), anticipated in 2021, was not yet released at the time of this update.

    Rainbow Health Ontario. This provincial program offers educational trainings, public policy advocacy and an online resource database to improve the health of LGBT people and access to competent care.

    Vancouver Coastal Health Transgender Health Information Program. This BC-wide information hub providing access to information about gender affirming care and supports.

    Canadian Pediatric Society resource on gender identity development

    Where can I get more information?

    You can consult with a registered psychologist to find out if psychological interventions might be of help to you. Provincial, territorial and some municipal associations of psychology often maintain referral services. For the names and coordinates of provincial and territorial associations of psychology, go to


    This fact sheet was developed for the Canadian Psychological Association by Jennifer Ducharme, Ph.D., C Psych., Department of Clinical Health Psychology, College of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba.

    Revised: October 2021

    Your opinion matters! Please contact us with any questions or comments about any of the Psychology Works Fact Sheets:

    Canadian Psychological Association
    141 Laurier Avenue West, Suite 702
    Ottawa, Ontario    K1P 5J3
    Tel:  613-237-2144
    Toll free (in Canada):  1-888-472-0657

    “Psychology Works” Fact Sheet: Hire Better Job Applicants Using a Structured Job Interview

    When it is time to hire a new employee, almost all organizations use some form of job interview as part of the personnel selection process. How well the interview predicts job performance depends on how well it is designed and conducted.

    The typical unstructured job interview

    The job interview is the most commonly used selection method available so conducting them properly is critical for successful hiring. The job interview can be thought of as an assessment, or test, like any other test used in personnel selection. The main difference is that the interview involves asking a job applicant a series of oral questions rather than completing a test online or on paper. The applicant’s responses to the interview questions are used to determine the applicant’s suitability for the job and the work environment.  Interviews may serve additional purposes as well, including active recruitment of an applicant.

    However, job interviews are vulnerable to a number of problems that interviewers need to be aware of if they want to conduct effective interviews, and avoid unnecessary legal risks.

    Research highlights some difficulties of using the typical job interview, including:

    • Potential for biased, lower ratings of applicants based on factors that are not relevant to job performance—such as appearance, gender, weight, age, or race
    • Difficulty knowing which pieces of information are relevant, and why
    • Judgmental biases and heuristics (ways of simplifying a complex task) often rule the day. These biases begin before the interview even starts – for example, interviewers often form initial impressions about applicants based on the resume or when meeting the applicant, and then tend to confirm these initial impressions during the interview.

    Many poorly constructed job interviews suffer from questions that may vary from one interviewer to another, and that may be interpreted differently from one interviewer to another. Poorly constructed interviews may also use questions that are not actually related to the job being filled. These interviews are referred to as unstructured interviews, because the interview questions are not based on any explicit or systematic analysis of the work, questions vary haphazardly for different interviewers and interviewees, and the scoring of the interviewees’ responses is arbitrary and subjective. In essence, unstructured interviews involve the use of “gut” feelings regarding the job applicant, and the interview proceeds in a conversational format – the proverbial ‘coffee chat’. These interviews are susceptible to bias, contamination by error, inaccuracy, and weak relationships with later performance on the job. Research has shown that these kinds of interviews provide very limited information for selecting the applicant who is truly best for the job. They also offer limited legal protection for the hiring organization.

    A better option: The structured job interview

    Structured interviews have consistently been shown to be significantly more predictive than unstructured ones, and in fact are one of the most predictive personnel selection tools available. Structured interviews have been found to reduce or eliminate the biases discussed earlier.

    Structured interviews have the following four defining characteristics.

    • Question Sophistication: The development of the interview questions is guided by a “job analysis”, based on the activities performed on the job, and unique context of the work place.
    • Question Consistency: All interviewers administer the same set of questions in a standardized order to each interviewee, without probing or by using a standardized probing process.
    • Evaluation Standardization: A standardized scoring key is used to quantify the performance of an interviewee’s for each individual interview question.
    • Limited Rapport Building: Rapport building questions and informal conversation are either prohibited or, if included at all, performed in a structured manner that is common to every job applicant and avoids asking about things prohibited by human rights legislation.

    How can I build a structured job interview?

    1. Start with questions based on critical job requirements. Conducting a job analysis or deriving a competency model allows you to identify what knowledge, skills, and abilities are required for the job. If possible, identify critical incidents and examples of effective and less-effective behaviours of employees when facing them. Once you know what is required, then develop questions, such as those noted below, which are known to assess the job requirements in ways that are well-suited to your target applicants.
      • For experienced applicants, use questions focusing on their past behaviour in related situations (i.e. behavioural questions), which are usually strong predictors of future behaviour. For example, “Tell me about a time when you disagreed with a team member. How did you react? What was the outcome?”
      • For inexperienced applicants, use situational questions to determine how the interviewee would respond if presented with a particular situation, which includes some form of dilemma. For example, ”You are supervising a team of ten employees on a time-sensive project. Two team members start arguing with one another over some budgeting error, each blaming the other for the problem. One employee storms off the room yelling profanities, while the second one comes to you claiming they cannot work in this team anymore. How would you approach this situation?”
    2. An interview can include both types of questions listed above. Regardless of the type of question used, the same set of interview questions must be administered to all job applicants. An interview guide should seek to ensure that the interviewers understand the order in which questions should be given, the scoring key for each question, which should include definitions and/or examples of constitutes a response that merits a certain score (e.g., what is worth 4 points on a 1-5 scoring system), and so forth. Detailed instructions should be included in the interview guide and interviewer training (including training about error and biases) should be administered. Frame-of-reference training, detailed extensively elsewhere, is likely one of the best methods. Ideally, interviews should be conducted by a panel of interviews (with diverse backgrounds).
    3. Information obtained from the job analysis, competency model, or critical incidents should form the basis of the scoring key. For example, in order to score an interview question inquiring about levels of a given capability, such as mechanical knowledge, job experts can be asked the extent to which that capability is needed in order to effectively perform the job. (Further details on job analysis can be found in the book references.)

    Where can I get more information?

    CPA Industrial and Organizational Psychology Section (CSIOP)

    Within the larger field of psychology, Industrial-Organizational (or I-O) Psychology is a specialty area based on the scientific study of behaviour in organizations. I-O psychologists work to improve organizational functioning and employee well-being through management and communication systems, hiring practices, performance appraisal, leadership development, and training programs.

    I-O psychologists also provide professional consultation to organizations in order to help enhance work productivity and employee satisfaction. More information can be found on the section website at:

    Bridge Magazine Articles

    • Society for Human Resources Management (2021). Guidelines on Interview and Employment Application Questions. Society for Human Resources Management, Inc.

    Technical Guides

    • Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (2018). Principles for the validation and use of personnel selection procedures (5th). SIOP Inc.


    • Catano, V. M., Wiesner, W. H., Hackett, R. D., & Roulin, N. (2021). Recruitment and selection in Canada (8th). TopHat/Nelson.
    • Kelloway, K. E., Catano, V. M., & Day, A. L. (2011). People and work in Canada. Toronto, ON: Nelson.
    • Roulin (2017). The psychology of job interviews. Routledge

    Research Articles

    • Chapman, D. & Zweig, D. I. (2005) Developing a nomological network for interview structure: Antecedents and consequences of the structured selection interview. Personnel Psychology, 58, 673-702.
    • Latham, G.P., & Sue-Chan, C. (1999).  A meta-analysis of the situational interview: An enumerative review of reasons for its validity. Canadian Psychology, 40, 56-67.
    • Levashina, J., Hartwell, C. J., Morgeson, F. P., & Campion, M. A. (2014). The structured employment interview: Narrative and quantitative review of the research literature. Personnel Psychology, 67(1), 241-293.


    This fact sheet has been prepared for the Canadian Psychological Association by Drs. Thomas O’Neill, and Derek Chapman, University of Calgary, and Dr. Blake Jelley, University of Prince Edward Island. Revised by Dr. Nicolas Roulin, Saint Mary’s University

    Revised: July 2021

    Your opinion matters! Please contact us with any questions or comments about any of the Psychology Works Fact Sheets:

    Canadian Psychological Association
    141 Laurier Avenue West, Suite 702
    Ottawa, Ontario    K1P 5J3
    Tel:  613-237-2144
    Toll free (in Canada):  1-888-472-0657


    Call for Nominations for a Delegate to the General Assembly of the International Union of Psychological Science (IUPsyS)

    Individuals attend the formal meetings of the IUPsyS (held every two years) and vote for Canada at these meetings. Term is 4-years from 2022 – 2026, effective June 2022. Nominees must be CPA Members/Fellows in good standing.

    Deadline to submit nominations is March 31, 2022.

    Click here for more information on the IUPsyS, delegate responsibilities, criteria for nomination, and on how to submit nominations.

    Post-Federal Election Advocacy (October 2021)

    As part of Mental Illness Awareness Week (MIAW, October 3-9), and the CPA’s post-election advocacy activities, the association sent a congratulatory letter to Prime Minister Trudeau noting the importance of investing in expanded and timely access to mental health care programs and services.  Dr. Karen Cohen (CPA CEO) also had an Op Ed Mental Health Care in Canada: Mending the Access Gaps in The Hill Times – which is read by all Ottawa insiders – which outlines a number of recommendations to close the access gap.  As well, in the capacity as Chair of Canadian Alliance on Mental Illness and Mental Health’s (CAMIMH) Public Affairs Committee, Glenn Brimacombe (CPA Director of Policy and Public Affairs) co-wrote an Op Ed on Mental Health Parity, A Time Whose Idea Has Come for The Hill Times.  As the new government takes shape, CPA will continue to be active in engaging a broad cross-section of Parliamentarians.

    Presidential Message, World Mental Health Day, October 10, 2021

    Over the course of this pandemic, societal, national and global systemic inequities and disparities have been exacerbated and underscored.  These ongoing and ignored injustices can be directly linked to the current mental health crisis, as the most vulnerable among us have little to no access to care. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights enshrines rights to safety, health, housing, education, and the benefits of science and culture (Articles 3–28), which by definition must include psychological health and science.  The Declaration states that all people are entitled to these rights “without distinction of any kind” (Article 2.1).  As such, regardless of community or country, addressing access to mental health services is imperative, in order to honor and protect all peoples’ right to psychological health.

    Ada L. Sinacore, PhD
    President, Canadian Psychological Association

    Canadian Children, Youth and Communities (CCYC) Health In | Equity Conference

    November 27, 2021

    Canadian Children, Youth and Communities (CCYC) Health In | Equity Conference
      Location: Online
      Contact Phone Number: (416) 978-2719
      Contact E-Mail:
      Event link:

      The Canadian Children, Youth and Communities (CCYC) Health In | Equity Conference is an interdisciplinary conference designed to bring together pediatric health and allied health care professionals to address health care inequities from birth to adolescence using a family-centred approach.

      The online conference, November 27, 2021, is ideal for pediatric health and allied health professionals in academic and community settings nationwide who are looking to inform their professional practice with a health equity lens. Those seeking approaches to address barriers in accessing health care and ways in which to implement these approaches may find the conference helpful.

      Learn more and register on the program website:

      The conference is also seeking abstracts on research projects, programs or interventions addressing child health care inequities. The submission deadline is October 15, 2021.

      We hope to see you online!


    November 18, 2021

    Creativity in Practice: Free Webinar
      Location: Online
      Contact Phone Number: (647) 370-0263
      Contact E-Mail:
      Event link:

      Free 60-Minute Webinar for Psychologists with all Levels of Musical Experience
      with Deborah Seabrook, PhD MTA RCC

      Thursday, November 18th at 12:00pmPST

      Do you love music and wish you could integrate it into your clinical work to offer clients a new, creative approach?

      Used in psychotherapy, music can distinctly serve as both a way of uncovering new depths and a means to meaningfully process profound material.

      In this powerful research-based and experiential webinar, you’ll learn:

      • Why connecting with your own creativity can serve your clients and gentle ways of nurturing your musicality
      • How incorporating music in your clinical sessions can deepen the therapeutic relationship and open up new clinical insights
      • How music-integrated clinical work can uniquely support clients to explore and process challenging experiences
      • Which clinical music method would suit you – even if you have no musical training