The Science of Psychedelics: Training for Medical Professionals

Ongoing – Homestudy

MD Media Inc

Location: Online
Contact Phone Number: (647) 919-3615
Contact E-Mail:
Event Link:

The Science of Psychedelics: Training for Medical Professionals has been approved for 8.0 AMA PRA Category 1 Credits™ through the joint providership of CME Consultants and MD Media Inc., as well as accreditation through the American Psychological Association (APA), the California Board of Registered Nursing, the California Board of Behavioral Sciences, and the Oregon Board of Naturopathic Medicine (OBNM).


Alcohol, Other Drugs & Mental Health (Dual Diagnosis) Training ONLINE & Live (12 Hr Advanced)


Substance Abuse and Mental Health Interventions

Location: Online 24/7
Event Link:
Cost of Dual Diagnosis Training is reduced from $390 to $195 (50% off). Buy ONLINE program for $195, get LIVE free or Buy LIVE program for $195, get ONLINE free.

George Patriki provides both LIVE and ONLINE training & professional development for the health care, welfare and social service industries on the Gold Coast, throughout Australia and the globe…

Click here to register and pay for the LIVE or ONLINE training.

Certificate of attendance and qualification for 12 points (ONLINE) or up to 15 points (Live) of CPD (Continuing Professional Development) for your professional peak body (APS, ACA, AASW, CPA, PACFA, ACWA etc), requires completion of the full 2 days of intensive training live or online.

This advanced training covers all of the current evidence based, best practice in the Alcohol & Other Drugs (AOD) and Mental Health from an integrated, holistic framework

In June 2018, S.A.M.H.I. launched its 6 module, Self Paced, 12 hour Dual Diagnosis Training. This training will equip workers to be able to deliver brief and early interventions to people struggling with substance abuse and mental health issues, as well as advanced psychotherapeutic skills. This is the same as the comprehensive 2 day advanced training that is being delivered live across Australia and online in 81 countries. –

This online Dual Diagnosis Training was launched in June 2018 on the learning online learning platform which provides lifetime login to the training. They have thousands of courses and millions of students worldwide.

Module 1. Drugs & Effects

  • Cycle of Addiction
  • Alcohol
  • Drink & Drug Driving
  • Tobacco
  • Cannabis
  • Stimulants (Speed, Ice, Ecstasy, Cocaine)
  • Inhalants (volatile substances)

  • Module 2. Addictions & Mental Health
  • Dual Diagnosis
  • Integrative Holistic Model
  • Needs & Underlying Issues that drive addictions

  • Module 3. Harm Minimisation & Optimal Health
  • Pharmacotherapies
  • Orthomolecular Science, Functional Medicine & Optimal Health

  • Module 4. Neuropharmacology & Neurophysiology (Brain Works)
  • Neuroplasticity
  • Neurotransmitters
  • Psychosis vs Dissociation
  • Psychospirituality

  • Module 5. Trauma model & Keys to Treatment
  • Guilt vs Shame
  • Dealing with ambivalence

  • Module 6. Brief & Early Intervention and Tripod of Support
  • Stages of Change
  • Costs vs Benefits – doing a brief intervention

    Foundations of Animal-Assisted Interventions


    Foundations of Animal-Assisted Interventions
      Location: Online
      Contact Phone Number: (780) 666-9808
      Contact E-Mail:
      Event Link:

      This comprehensive training provides you with the foundational knowledge to ethically and effectively incorporate animals into your practice. The training is offered online through a variety of different forms – video lectures with closed captioning, downloadable slides and audio lectures. Learn your own way, in your own time and at your own pace.

      This training has been pre-approved by the CCPA for 24 continuing education credits and offers a certificate of completion once all course requirements have been met.

      Start your journey into animal-assisted interventions today!

    La série de cours de perfectionnement professionnel SCP-APA est ici!


    Pour donner suite à nos recherches, aux demandes des membres et aux questions qui ont marqué l’actualité, l’offre de cours de perfectionnement professionnel continu, que propose la SCP conjointement avec l’APA, s’enrichira de centaines de cours de formation continue d’ici la fin de l’année.
    Cliquez ici pour en savoir plus et pour voir les 21 premiers cours.


    Do you need to complete a history of psychology course for provincial licensing or to get your grad degree? Or maybe you are just interested in learning how historical concepts are relevant to current issues in psychology?

    Either way, we have you covered.

    Click here to learn more about the new HISTORY AND SYSTEMS OF PSYCHOLOGY course and how to apply.

    Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) for PTSD: 2-day Foundational Workshop

    September 13-14, 2021

    Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) for PTSD: 2-day Foundational Workshop
      Location: Online
      Contact Phone Number: (416) 659-5040
      Contact E-Mail:
      Event Link:

      CPT for PTSD is a recommended first line therapy in current treatment guidelines world-wide. This 2-day workshop serves as a foundational training in CPT, highlighting the most recent research. Participants will receive instruction in the theoretical underpinnings of CPT to facilitate individual case conceptualization, session-by-session review of the protocol, demonstrations with video-recorded materials from actual cases, personal experience with the therapy materials through role-plays, and discussion of common problems encountered. This workshop is suitable for healthcare practitioners and trainees in psychology, social work, nursing, counselling, medicine, and related fields.

      Brochure (PDF)

    Our Stories, Our Voices: A film festival focusing on LGBTQIA+ mental health

    August 10-12th 2021

    Art With Impact

    “Psychology Works” Fact Sheet: Workplace Burnout

    What is Burnout?

    Chances are you have said or thought to yourself “I’m burned out!” at some point. In everyday life, we often use the term burnout to mean that we are “exhausted” or “wiped out” or to refer to “exhaustion of physical or emotional strength or motivation, usually as a result of prolonged stress or frustration” (Merriam-Webster Dictionary). But in psychological research, burnout refers to more than just exhaustion. The term burnout is used to describe a group of signs and symptoms that consistently occur together and are caused by chronic workplace stress. Different uses of the same word can make things hard to understand – especially since even the terms themselves vary across sources – burnt out, burned out, burnout. Adding to the confusion, the term burnout appears in The International Classification of Diseases – 11th Edition (ICD-11) but it is not classified as a disease or a medical condition. In 2019, the World Health Organization identified burnout as an “occupational phenomenon” – something due to the conditions of work.

    Burnout is defined in ICD-11 as: “a syndrome conceptualized as resulting from chronic workplace stress that has not been successfully managed. It is characterized by three dimensions:


    1. feelings of energy depletion or exhaustion;
    2. increased mental distance from one’s job, or feelings of negativism or cynicism related to one’s job; and
    3. reduced professional efficacy.

    Burnout refers specifically to the work environment and should not be applied to describe experiences in other areas of life.”

    Researchers have identified exhaustion, cynicism and inefficacy as three key dimensions of the burnout experience. We all feel wiped out from time to time but if you are experiencing burnout, the exhaustion is overwhelming – you feel tired almost all of the time, both physically and emotionally. You will also perceive an increased mental distance or detachment from your job, or have a lot of negative and cynical thoughts related to your job. You may feel you dislike a job you previously were passionate about – and this lower engagement itself starts to feel frustrating. It will also be harder to work – you may notice a lower sense of efficacy (ability to produce a desired or intended result) and reduced productivity, accomplishment or ability to cope with the demands of your job. Everything feels overwhelming and the effects ripple into our personal lives.

    It is important to keep in mind that burnout is not just an individual problem. Burnout is the result of multiple factors from the work environment. We experience stress when the job demands we face – physical, emotional, or otherwise – are greater than the job resources we have. Think about a campfire – if there is no wood to put on the fire and it’s pouring rain – it’s going to be hard to keep that fire going.

    No one wants or chooses the experience of burnout. People would prefer to be engaged and have enough resources to keep up with the demands of work and their day-to-day lives.

    How do you know if you are experiencing burnout?

    Burnout often has an insidious onset – meaning it gradually emerges over time.

    The stage for burnout is set by workplace stress. When job demands outweigh job resources, workers experience stress. When this stress goes on for a long time, or becomes chronic workplace stress, people may experience burnout. People experiencing burnout may notice changes in thoughts, behaviour, emotions, motivation, and bodily sensations. Some signs and symptoms associated with burnout can be found below.

    Emotions & Motivations Thoughts Behaviour Body/Physical
    Loss of motivation about work; low excitement and engagement

    Decreased job satisfaction

    Irritability, frustration, anger

    Anxiety, worry, insecurity

    Feeling alone in the world; desire to isolate oneself

    Feelings of incompetence and failure; drop in self-confidence


    Negative thoughts related to one’s job

    Increased focus on errors, mistakes and failures

    Cynicism about others’ intentions

    Increased mental distance or detachment from one’s job

    Negative or inappropriate attitudes towards clients, customers or colleagues

    Loss of idealism; increased intention to leave the job

    Difficulties with concentration, memory, judgment, decision-making

    Difficulty producing the results you want or intend at work

    Lower productivity or accomplishment; inefficiency


    Withdrawal and social isolation

    Absenteeism, Presenteeism


    Persistent fatigue and exhaustion; feeling tired most of the time; low energy; feeling “worn out”

    Pain (e.g., headaches, backaches); sore muscles

    Increased susceptibility to cold, flus and infections

    Sleep problems (e.g., difficulty falling or staying asleep, or early morning awakenings)

    Gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., digestive problems, ulcers); irritable bowel symptoms (e.g., abdominal pain, cramping); changes in appetite or weight

    Skin problems (e.g., hives, eczema)


    Workplace Burnout can be confused with some other mental health and stress related problems such as Trauma and Stress-Related disorders, Mood disorders such as Major Depression, and Anxiety Disorders. For more information on these issues, check out the related factsheets at

    What causes burnout?

    There are many different ideas about what causes burnout but most researchers agree that chronic work stress is a significant factor. Burnout is more likely to occur when job demands outweigh job resources.

    Researchers also agree that both situational and individual factors may contribute or increase the likelihood of an individual developing burnout.

    A number of risk factors for contributing to burnout have been identified:

    Individual risk factors

    • Demonstrating perfectionism in every aspect of one’s work, without considering priorities
    • Placing too much importance on work (e.g., work as sole focus of life)
    • Low self-esteem, cognitive rigidity, emotional instability and external locus of control
    • Certain personal situations (e.g., major family responsibilities) disrupting work-life balance
    • Difficulties in setting limits and boundaries (leading to work-life imbalance)
    • Having high expectations of oneself and heightened professional conscience
    • Difficulty delegating or working with a team in a stressful environment
    • Inadequate adaptation strategies (dependence, poor time management, high need for support, unwise lifestyle habits, difficult interpersonal relationships)
    • A highly driven, ‘A-type’ personality that is high in competitiveness and need for control

    Situational risk factors

    • Work overload
    • Lack of control and inability to participate in decisions related to the way one’s work is done.
    • Insufficient reward and recognition (e.g., financial compensation, esteem, respect) can be devaluing and heighten feelings of inefficacy.
    • “Toxic” Community where work relationships are characterized by unresolved conflict, lack of psychological support, poor communication, and mistrust.
    • Unfair treatment or incivility and disrespect can lead to cynicism, anger and hostility.
    • Values conflicts on the job, where there is a gap between personal and organizational values, can create stress as workers must make a trade-off between their beliefs and work they have to do.
    • Poorly defined responsibilities, ambiguous roles, and difficult schedules have also been identified as stressful when the situation persists.

    What helps people with burnout?

    The best practice approaches for burnout are multi-faceted, involving a high focus on self-care strategies for the individual, and reducing work environment stressors.

    Burnout interventions should focus on both:

    • the individual (e.g., increase employees’ psychological resources and enhance coping; providing rest and respite from demands; enhancing the use of self-care strategies), and
    • the environment (e.g., change the occupational context and reducing sources of stress, primarily related to work demands).

    There is more research on individual strategies than on environmental or organizational strategies. However, there is research evidence for the primary role of situational factors and it appears that individual-focused interventions are not sufficient to tackle severe burnout. Workplace stressors also need to be considered and addressed.

    How can you prevent or deal with burnout?

    For individuals

    • Change work patterns (e.g., work less, take more breaks, avoid overtime)
    • Develop coping skills (e.g., time management)
    • Improve interpersonal effectiveness skills (e.g., assertiveness and conflict resolution skills)
    • Prioritize self-care (e.g., exercise, eat healthy, get enough sleep)
    • Practice relaxation, meditation and/or mindfulness strategies
    • Obtain social support (from colleagues and family)
    • Change the way you think about your work (e.g., using Cognitive Behaviour Therapy)
    • Enhance self-understanding through psychotherapy
    • Enhance emotional intelligence skills (e.g., self-awareness and self-regulation of emotions, as well as other awareness)

    For organizations

    • Ensure employees have a sustainable and manageable workload – where demands are realistic.
    • Involve employees in decisions that affect their work tasks so they have some opportunity to exercise professional autonomy and control/ability to access the resources necessary to do an effective job.
    • Recognize and reward employees for work well done.
    • Build a healthy community where employees have positive relationships and social support. Develop communication and conflict resolution skills so employees have effective ways of working out disagreements.
    • Develop fair and equitable organizational policies. Treat employees with appropriate respect.
    • Define organizational values, job goals and expectations.
    • Promote good health (including mental health) and fitness

    How can psychologists help people with burnout?

    Psychologists educate workplaces (leaders and employees) about burnout so they understand what it is and how to handle it, via all-team or leadership-specific workshops and professional development sessions.

    Psychologists can also conduct assessments on individuals to help figure out if they are experiencing burnout and develop a plan for addressing it. Psychologists can help workplaces identify organizational factors that may be contributing to stress and burnout.

    Psychologists can help you build individual skills, such as coping, stress management, time management, and emotional intelligence. Psychologists can help organizations develop programs for improving employee engagement, reducing stress, and preventing burnout.

    Psychologists engage in research to help us better understand burnout and develop the best strategies for preventing and treating it.

    Finally, Psychologists can advocate for people experiencing burnout.

    For more information:

    You can consult with a registered psychologist to find out if psychological interventions might be of help to you. Provincial, territorial and some municipal associations of psychology often maintain referral services. For the names and coordinates of provincial and territorial associations of psychology, go to

    You can find additional information and free self-help resources on mental health in the workplace and burnout at:

    Sante mentale en milieu de travail:

    This fact sheet has been prepared for the Canadian Psychological Association by Dr. Melanie Badali, Registered Psychologist at the North Shore Stress and Anxiety Clinic, and Dr. Joti Samra, Registered Psychologist, CEO and Founder of MyWorkPlaceHealth.

    Date:  May 17, 2021

    Your opinion matters! Please contact us with any questions or comments about any of the Psychology Works Fact Sheets:

    Canadian Psychological Association
    141 Laurier Avenue West, Suite 702
    Ottawa, Ontario    K1P 5J3
    Tel:  613-237-2144
    Toll free (in Canada):  1-888-472-0657


    “Psychology Works” Fact Sheet: Preparing for an Interview

    What to expect from an interview

    A job interview is a social interaction between two or more individuals, (1) interviewer(s), and (2) a job applicant. Before an interview, it is likely that the interviewer and the job applicant know very little about each other. They have likely never met before, and the majority of the information would have come from the applicant’s resume, a pre-interview test results, or some initial correspondence via email or telephone.

    As such, the interview process is a tool to gather additional information so both parties can make an informed decision about whether they want to continue or start an employment relationship.

    For example, the interviewer is trying to assess two key “elements of fit”:

    • Person-job fit: based on skills and experience, is the applicant qualified to perform the duties of the position?
    • Person-organization fit: based on personality and values, will the applicant be a good fit with the company’s values, culture and preferences or interest?

    At the same time, the applicant is trying to understand whether they will feel comfortable in that job/position and happy working for that organization, so they are also assessing the organization as a potential partner for this employment relationship. To promote themselves as a great place to work, the organization may highlight positive aspects about the job, the working conditions, and other organizational benefits during the interview.

    During an interview, there is often some embellishment on both sides. For a job applicant, there is an incentive to put your best foot forward, which can lead to exaggeration or dishonesty about your skills or experience. In the same way, some organizations may embellish about the position, organization or benefits in order to recruit the best potential candidate.

    Finally, there is a time element on all of this. There is a lot of information being shared in usually less than an hour. So there are cognitive demands on both sides to do a lot of things in a very limited amount of time.

    Interviews can vary in a number of different ways, including format, interviewer(s), and medium:


    Type Brief Description Pros Cons
    One-to-One One internal interviewer from the hiring organization Most common type of interview, making the format more predictable Singular perspective/assessment; more potential for bias
    Panel Multiple interviewers from the hiring organization More diverse perspectives/less bias, can share tasks and responsibilities among interviewers More cognitively demanding for applicants to interact with multiple interviewers
    Group Multiple applicants interviewing at the same time with one or more interviewers (e.g. for large organizations) Cheaper for the hiring organization; chance to “check” the competition for applicants May be more stressful for the applicant; fewer opportunities to put “your best foot forward” when being assessed alongside other applicants
    Serial Back-to-back interviews at the same organization but with different interviewers Opportunity to gather different perspectives for the hiring organizations. Chance to meet with more people to assess the company for the applicant Cognitively demanding for the applicant; can be confusing as to who/what you said in each interview; requires a lot of preparation



    Type Brief Description Pros Cons
    Supervisors/Colleagues Future supervisor or potential colleagues Opportunity to highlight in-depth expertise and background  (e.g. use of jargon and/or technical terms) Not always interview experts, which can lead to  interview being conducted in a very unstandardized way or introduce different types of bias
    HR Professionals/

    I/O Psychology Consultants

    External professionals with expertise in interviewing/HR processes Expertise in how to conduct and/or design fair and appropriate interview assessments; more structured, less bias Not experts in the job/subject matter, so language needs to be adapted (avoiding jargon and/or technical terms)



    Type Brief Description Pros Cons
    In-person Face-to-face meetings between interviewer and candidate More room to clarify/expand on answers; opportunity to develop rapport and give-off a great impression using non-verbal cues Heightened pressure/interview anxiety; difficulties with scheduling and more costly
    Phone Interview over the phone May mitigate some interview anxiety; eliminates geographic distance Less time to “sell yourself”; difficulties building rapport, zero non-verbal element
    Synchronous Video Live/video-conference interview Similar to in-person, but more flexible and cheaper/easier to schedule Risk of technical issues, poor internet connection, limited non-verbal elements
    Asynchronous Video Recorded video format Most flexible option (can complete where and when you want). Very standardized and thus fair by default Risk of technical issues, no interaction with an interviewer (so no verbal or non-verbal feedback), no opportunity to probe or follow-up

    What kinds of questions can be asked?

    (1)   Traditional / Popular

    • Examples: “what is your main weakness?” what is your main strength? where do you see yourself in 5 years? why should we hire you?”
    • Reatively easy to prepare because they are quite generic (a quick “google” to find most common questions should do the trick!)
    • Can be considered as poor/sub-optimal interviewing techniques

    (2)   Knowledge-based

    • Examples: “what is the best technique to deal with…”
    • Focused on job-specific questions, such as tools, techniques, methods, concepts, etc.
    • As an expert in the field, you should have the background and expertise to answer these types of questions quite easily

    (3)   Past-behavioural

    • Example: “tell us about a time when you’ve dealt with/experienced….?”
    • Based on actual behaviour – asked to reflect on what you have done in the past, ideally in a workplace or school-based context, to demonstrate whether you possess job-relevant skills or abilities
    • Aims to assess if you have specific skill(s) such as leadership, communication, problem solving, time management and stress management – the question is often matched to the type of skill they are trying to assess.
    • Can be considered as a “best practice” for interviewing

    (4)   Situational

    • Example: “imagine that you are working in…?”
    • Based on intentions – aims to assess similar skills as past-behavioural questions by asking how you would handle a specific, hypothethical workplace situation/issue
    • May include some kind of dilemma or challenge you to decide between two or more potential alternatives to solve a problem
    • Usually includes a lot of details to create a specific context, including what the problem is, what you resourcing constraints are, etc.
    • Can be considered as a “best practice” for interviewing

    (5)   Brainteasers

    • Example: “why are manhole covers round? how many ping pong balls can you put in a Boeing 747?”
    • Not looking for the right answer, but instead, aims to assess your cognitive/problem-solving processing: how do you react to this weird situation where you have a bit of pressure on you? What kind of logic you do follow?
    • Can be considered as poor/sub-optimal interviewing techniques

    How to prepare for an interview

    (1)   Try to identify the “selection criteria”

    • Selection criteria is what the company is looking for – what are the skills, abilities experiences qualifications that they want to assess in this interview?

    How and where?

    • In the job ad → Role description and required qualifications, skills, or experience
    • On the company (career) website → Culture, values, etc.
    • Reaching out to connections within the organization
    • Using online job descriptions

    (2)   Demonstrate how you can match the selection criteria

    • Identify potential questions and find a relevant experience

    (3)   Use the STAR technique

    When asked to describe a past experience or emphasize qualifications

    1. Situation – What was the context, when did it happen, what problem did you face?
    2. Task – What was your role, position, or responsibilities (e.g., leadership)?
    3. Action – How did you react, what action did you take, what decision did you make?
    4. Result – What was the result or outcome for you, your team, or your organization?

    (4)   Use honest impression management tactics

    What does that mean?

    • Present your skills, abilities, and experiences in a true but positive light
    • Emphasize how your beliefs, core values, or personality align with the interviewer’s or the organization’s
    • Take responsibility of your past errors or failures, but explain what happened, and describe how you learned from these experiences (e.g. providing contexting, such as COVID-19)

    (5)   Apply effective coping strategies to manage interview anxiety


    • … emotion-oriented coping strategies (e.g., share your anxiety with others, like friends, family members, partners, colleagues)
    • … or problem-oriented coping strategies (e.g., practice, use breathing techniques)

    Adapting to video interviews

    As more and more businesses shift to a remote or hybrid working format, a lot of interviews are moving from in-person to video or technology mediated.

    Video interviews come in two key formats: (1) synchronous video interviews (SVIs) using tools (e.g. zoom, skype), or (3) asynchronous video interviews (AVIs) using a platform where you actually are invited to go online and answers questions without any live interaction, and then those answers are watched later on by an interviewer.

    SVIs AVIs
    • Live interaction

    • Similar to in-person

    • Can be facing a panel of  interviewers

    • Somewhat flexible (location)

    • Not live (recorded only)

    • Talking to your camera only a largely novel experience

    • Multiple raters possible or  automatic (AI-based) scoring

    • Very flexible (location + time)

    • Preparation or re-recording  opportunities

    Tips for video interviews

    • Use the same 5 tips as with traditional interviews
    • But also…
      1. Check your tech (computer, webcam, sound/mic, internet)
      2. Find the right time and place (quiet, natural light, book enough time, etc.)
      3. Consider your background (no distraction or bias-inducing content)
      4. Use options available to you (preparation time, re-recording)
      5. Practice even more!

    For more information:

    More on the psychology of interviewing from Dr. Nicholas Roulin: “The Psychology of Job Interviews.” (2017). Taylor & Francis.

    More on video interviewing:

    An article on virtual hiring:

    This fact sheet has been prepared for the Canadian Psychological Association by Dr. Nicholas Roulin, PhD, Associate Professor of I/O Psychology, Saint Mary’s University

    Date:  June 30, 2021.

    Your opinion matters! Please contact us with any questions or comments about any of the Psychology Works Fact Sheets:

    Canadian Psychological Association
    141 Laurier Avenue West, Suite 702
    Ottawa, Ontario    K1P 5J3
    Tel:  613-237-2144
    Toll free (in Canada):  1-888-472-0657


    L’Alliance canadienne pour la maladie mentale et la santé mentale (ACMMSM) presse le gouvernement fédéral d’adopter une Loi sur la parité universelle en santé mentale et en toxicomanie (juin 2021)

    L’Alliance canadienne pour la maladie mentale et la santé mentale (ACMMSM) a publié un document de travail intitulé From Out of the Shadows and Into the Light – Achieving Parity in Access to Care among Mental Health, Substance Use and Physical Health. Ce document décrit les arguments en faveur de l’introduction par le gouvernement fédéral d’une nouvelle loi, la Loi sur la parité universelle en santé mentale et en toxicomanie, et identifie certains éléments qui pourraient y être inclus pour améliorer l’accès aux services et au soutien en santé mentale et en toxicomanie au Canada. En publiant son rapport, l’ACMMSM espère susciter un débat public accru sur le rôle du gouvernement fédéral, en étroite collaboration avec les provinces et les territoires, pour s’assurer que les Canadiens reçoivent les soins dont ils ont besoin, quand ils en ont besoin.



    New “Psychology Works” Fact Sheets: Epilepsy

    The CPA has created Four new “Psychology Works” Fact Sheets on the academic, cognitive, social and emotional aspects of epilepsy in children.

    1. Helping Children with Epilepsy Succeed in School – PDF | HTML
    2. Strategies for Cognitive Challenges in Children with Epilepsy – PDF | HTML
    3. Strategies for Supporting Optimal Psychological Function in Children with Epilepsy – PDF | HTML
    4. Strategies for Supporting Social Function in Children with Epilepsy – PDF | HTML

    You can find all of our “Psychology Works” Fact Sheets here

    “Psychology Works” Fact Sheet: Strategies for Supporting Social Function in Children with Epilepsy


    Students living with epilepsy can display poor social processing (e.g., reading facial cues, understanding language nuances, taking perspective), lower level of functional independence, and lower educational status which can make it difficult for them in the social realm.

    They may also remove themselves from social situations to avoid having an unpredictable or embarrassing seizure in front of their peers. This worry can be significantly reduced through teacher and classroom preparedness. If everyone knows what to expect prior to a student having a seizure and how to help when a student has a seizure the collective response can be reassuring and calming. It can reduce the worry of the student with epilepsy, their parent, teacher and classmates.

    Social stigma is common in epilepsy and can lead to a child having low self-esteem and a reduction in motivation to engage with school learning and activities (Elliott et al., 2005).

    In an Ontario survey or parents of children with epilepsy, 69% felt that their child was not doing well socially, and 57% were worried that their child would be teased or bullied at school (ESWO, 2018).

    Children who do not socialize or interact with their peers are at risk for poor outcomes as adults (Camfield et al., 2014). Often the effects of seizure activity, medication and close adult supervision will have delayed the development of independence and emotional self-control in a child with epilepsy. To meet the social-emotional competence of their peer group, children with epilepsy may need more support.

    Childhood-onset seizures can impact the development of basic and complex cognitive skills that form the core foundation for long term educational, vocational and interpersonal adaptation (Smith et al., 2013).

    • In some students with epilepsy, typical development milestones may have been missed and may need to be re-taught.
    • Throughout development, children are learning to share and to socially interact with others. Due to their epilepsy, some children may not have acquired these important skills and may have difficulty with social interaction. They may appear self-focused and not play well with others.
    • They may experience emotional or behavioural outbursts after relatively small issues because they do not have the social skills or emotional control to deal with their peers.
    • They may experience severe separation anxiety when they are away from their parents and/or withdraw socially and isolate themselves from their peers.

    Adult Overprotection and Restrictions at School

    Students may experience reduced autonomy due to ongoing seizures and the need for greater adult supervision.

    A parent or teacher may overprotect the student with epilepsy as a way to cope with the unpredictable nature of seizures. Conversely, children and youth living with epilepsy may become over-reliant on parents or teachers.

    Fearing that the student is not safe or will be injured, a parent or teacher may restrict the student’s activities and remove them from social encounters, recreation and school programming (Elliott et al., 2005).

    Adult monitoring and placing restrictions on age/appropriate activities suggest to the students that they are not “like other children”, that the world is a dangerous place, and that they are not capable of doing things on their own. The restrictions can cause the student with epilepsy to experience dis- continuous and fragmented learning, to feel helpless or to withdraw from social groups.

    Asking parents whether their child’s health care provider has placed restrictions on activities, and if so for what, can help to ensure students engage in the activities they are capable of doing.

    Strategies to support the development of autonomy and prosocial skills

    • Provide opportunities that will help the student develop a sense of mastery.
    • Support the development of decision-making skills and resiliency.
    • Model and explicitly teach appropriate social behaviour.
    • Teach alternative behaviours to achievement the student’s social goal (e.g., other ways to gain attention, other ways to create fun).
    • Model ways of showing interest and respecting personal space.
    • Incorporate “Social Behaviour Mapping” to support the student’s understanding of what is acceptable and how to meet the expectations.
    • Encourage involvement in extracurricular activities of interest.

    For More Information

    You can consult with a registered psychologist to find out if psychological interventions might be of help to you. Provincial, territorial and some municipal associations of psychology often maintain referral services. For the names and coordinates of provincial and territorial associations of psychology, go to

    This fact sheet has been prepared for the Canadian Psychological Association by Dr. Mary Lou Smith, University of Toronto, The Hospital for Sick Children; Dr. Elizabeth N. Kerr, The Hospital for Sick Children; Ms. Mary Secco, Epilepsy Southwestern Ontario; and Dr. Karen Bax, Western University. 

    Revised: June 22, 2021

    Your opinion matters! Please contact us with any questions or comments about any of the Psychology Works Fact Sheets:

    Canadian Psychological Association
    141 Laurier Avenue West, Suite 702
    Ottawa, Ontario    K1P 5J3
    Tel:  613-237-2144
    Toll free (in Canada):  1-888-472-0657


    Camfield, P. R., & Camfield, C. S. (2014). What happens to children with epilepsy when they become adults? Some facts and opinions. Pediatric neurology, 51(1), 17-23.

    Elliott, I. M., Lach, L., & Smith, ML. (2005). I just want to be normal: a qualitative study exploring how children and adolescents view the impact of intractable epilepsy on their quality of life. Epilepsy & behavior, 7(4), 664-678.

    ESWO (2018). Living with Epilepsy: Voices from the Community,

    Smith ML., Gallagher A, Lassonde, M. Cognitive Deficits in Children with Epilepsy. In Duchowny M, Cross H, Arzimanoglou A (Eds.). Pediatric Epilepsy, New York: McGraw-Hill, 2013, pp. 309-322.

    “Psychology Works” Fact Sheet: Strategies for Supporting Optimal Psychological Function in Children with Epilepsy


    In an Ontario study of 144 parents, 111 expressed concerns about their child with epilepsy’s behaviour (ESWO, 2018).

    Inattention, irritability, agitation, negativity and angry outbursts are frequent among children living with epilepsy. These issues may be primary or they may represent or mask anxiety and depression. Anxiety and depression do not necessarily present as the traditional signs of overt worrying, and changes in appetite or sleep patterns.

    Feelings of irritability, anger, aggressiveness as well as anxiety and depression can occur from a few hours or a few days before a seizure occurs and then resume to a prior level after a child has a seizure. The change can be due to dysfunction in the neurons or seizures arising from the emotional control centres of the brain and/or be secondary to the consequences of living with epilepsy.

    Anxiety and depression

    The incidence rates of anxiety and depression among children with epilepsy are higher than in the general population, occurring in approximately a third of children living with epilepsy (Bermeo-Ovalle et al., 2016; Reilly et al., 2011; Ekinci et al., 2009).

    There may be multiple causes for a child’s anxiety and depression:


    • There may be structural abnormalities in the areas of the brain related to emotion regulation and mood.
    • Ongoing seizures may disrupt areas that control emotion regulation and mood.


    • Approximately one-third of children with new onset seizures report worrying about having another seizure (Besag et al., 2016).
    • Approximately one-third of children report worrying about talking to others about their epilepsy (Besag et al., 2016).
    • Students may also experience periods of intense emotional distress related to the unpredictability of their seizures and the loss of control over their bodies (Elliott et al., 2005).

    Strategies to support positive behaviour and emotional well-being

    • Create a predictable schedule when possible.
    • Talk about emotions, label them, and discuss and model strategies for coping with emotions to help students develop emotional self-regulation.
    • Teach specific ways to identify and express feelings of stress and develop a concrete strategy for what to do in these situations:
      • Who should the child tell? What should the child say?
      • Give the student a script to follow.
    • Provide time away from the desk (walk around) – all kids need an escape.
    • Try to reduce or eliminate triggers.
    • Practice “time-in” by placing the student close to an adult so that they can feel the adult’s presence, which in turn may support the student to calm down and self-regulate.
    • Think of activities that can help the student (e.g., visual activities might be useful for a student with language impairments, sensory tools may assist others, a quiet place in the room might be useful).
    • Incorporate “Social Behavior Mapping” to support understanding of the outcomes of expected and unexpected behaviours.
    • Use language that promotes self-regulation (e.g., “it is time to calm down”, “try to think of something else”, “count to ten and breathe out”, etc.).
    • Empathize with the student’s feelings without focusing on the inappropriate behaviour.
    • Help de-escalate problems by using distractions appropriate for the student (e.g., humour, change of scene/activity/person working with them).
    • Organize family meetings.

    Strategies to support the student’s self esteem

    • Set the student up to make progress in something that matters to them.
    • Help the child to develop an “Island of Competence”, for example: introduce them to sports, drama, music, art, mechanics, volunteering, friendships, computers, biking, martial arts, scouting, 4H, faith-based groups, etc.
    • Assist in developing responsibility and making contributions.
    • Find opportunities where the student can help younger children.
    • Provide leadership roles in the classroom.
    • Encourage the student in solving class problems.
    • Offer choices regarding topics, schoolwork and homework.
    • Give encouragement and positive feedback.
    • Recognize the student’s academic and non-academic accomplishments.
    • Recognize at least one of the child’s strengths each day.
    • Acknowledge that it’s ok to make mistakes.
    • Model acceptance when you make mistakes.
    • Avoid overreacting to mistakes.
    • Accept mistakes as part of the learning process.
    • Use errors as teachable moments.
    • Praise the process.
    • Praise effort.
    • Praise persistence.

    Some children may benefit from a psychological or psychiatric evaluation and may require psychological or pharmacological treatment.

    For More Information

    You can consult with a registered psychologist to find out if psychological interventions might be of help to you. Provincial, territorial and some municipal associations of psychology often maintain referral services. For the names and coordinates of provincial and territorial associations of psychology, go to

    This fact sheet has been prepared for the Canadian Psychological Association by Dr. Mary Lou Smith, University of Toronto, The Hospital for Sick Children; Dr. Elizabeth N. Kerr, The Hospital for Sick Children; Ms. Mary Secco, Epilepsy Southwestern Ontario; and Dr. Karen Bax, Western University.

    Revised: June 22, 2021

    Your opinion matters! Please contact us with any questions or comments about any of the Psychology Works Fact Sheets:

    Canadian Psychological Association
    141 Laurier Avenue West, Suite 702
    Ottawa, Ontario    K1P 5J3
    Tel:  613-237-2144
    Toll free (in Canada):  1-888-472-0657


    Bermeo-Ovalle, A. (2016). Psychiatric comorbidities in epilepsy: we learned to recognize them; it is time to start treating them. Epilepsy Currents, 16(4), 270-272.

    Besag, F., Gobbi, G., Caplan, R., Sillanpää, M., Aldenkamp, A., & Dunn, D. W. (2016). Psychiatric and behavioural disorders in children with epilepsy (ILAE Task Force Report): epilepsy and ADHD. Epileptic Disorders, 18(s1), S8-S15.

    Ekinci, O., Titus, J. B., Rodopman, A. A., Berkem, M., & Trevathan, E. (2009). Depression and anxiety in children and adolescents with epilepsy: prevalence, risk factors, and treatment. Epilepsy & Behavior, 14(1), 8-18.

    Elliott, I. M., Lach, L., & Smith, ML. (2005). I just want to be normal: a qualitative study exploring how children and adolescents view the impact of intractable epilepsy on their quality of life. Epilepsy & behavior, 7(4), 664-678.

    ESWO (2018). Living with Epilepsy: Voices from the Community,

    Reilly, C., Agnew, R., & Neville, B. G. (2011). Depression and anxiety in childhood epilepsy: a review. Seizure, 20(8), 589-597.


    “Psychology Works” Fact Sheet: Strategies for Cognitive Challenges in Children with Epilepsy

    Cognitive issues present in the majority of children with epilepsy

    Cognition refers to a variety of skills such as attention, processing speed, learning and remembering, intellectual reasoning abilities, expressing and understanding language as well as planning and problem solving.

    Cognitive issues are often present early on in the course of epilepsy or may even predate the onset of seizures (Smith et al., 2013; Besag et al., 2016).

    The most common issues affecting academic achievement are:

    • Attention
    • Processing Speed
    • Memory
    • Intellectual Disabilities

    Students with epilepsy may also have difficulties in executive, language, and motor functions, which may impact their performance in school.

    The cognitive, psychological and social consequences of epilepsy play a major role in school success and in determining the educational and occupational outcomes of a student living with epilepsy.

    Attention is readily impacted because attention networks are widely distributed throughout the brain

    Sustained attention, or the ability to remain focused for extended periods of time particularly if something feels boring or tedious, is a common issue for many students with epilepsy.

    ADHD is significantly more common in children/youth with epilepsy than the general population. Approximately 30 to 40% of children/youth with epilepsy meet criteria for ADHD (Besag et al., 2016). The inattentive subtype is most common. Males and females are equally represented.

    Educational and behavioural supports used for any student with attention problems can be effective for children living with epilepsy.

     Strategies to support students who have attention issues

    • Set up the environment to reduce distractibility.
    • Consider having the student sit at the front of the class, close to the teacher and away from doors and windows.
    • Provide the opportunity for access to a quiet workspace.
    • Consider the effect of the atmosphere: calm, music, colours.
    • Provide notes in advance.
    • Provide clear, explicit, concise instructions.
    • Use engaging and varied activities, emphasizing the student’s interests.
    • Tailor appropriately paced/time activities.
    • Use visual prompts: timetable or checklists.
    • Gain attention before giving instructions: use eye contact/child’s name.
    • Provide prompts to attend (look, listen, respond).
    • Modify/limit the task length (clear beginning/clear end).
    • Have the student identify something to look forward to after the work is done.
    • Encourage the student to participate actively in the classroom to maintain attention.
    • Provide regular work breaks.
    • Alternate intense working periods with periods of recreation.
    • Assist in breaking down information into short pieces that are “do-able”.
    • Offer a lot of positive feedback and try to limit corrective feedback.
    • Identify and encourage strengths.
    • Use reward systems to boost self-esteem.
    • Evaluate the student using short tests over a series of days.

    Slow or inconsistent processing speed is common, resulting in:

    • Variable responding
    • Slower reaction time on tasks
    • Difficulty in working quickly and methodically
    • Difficulty in learning a routine
    • Difficulty keeping pace with lessons
    • Gaps in learning
    • Frustration

    Strategies to support students who have slow processing speed

    • Speak at a slower pace and provide concise information.
    • Use sequential and clear language.
    • Simplify tasks by dividing information into chunks.
    • Use a multisensory approach – visual, auditory, kinesthetic.
    • Recap and fill in the gaps in learning as much as possible.
    • Give extra time.
    • Use cueing mechanisms to prepare student for changes.
    • Teach independent strategies (e.g., write lists, pack homework and class notes into knapsack after each subject to avoid rushing at the end of the day).
    • Provide visual/written information to support verbal instructions.
    • Use visual timetables and colour coding.
    • Provide a note taker or audio or video record of lesson.
    • Offer longer times for writing and exams.
    • Avoid competitions (fastest first).

    Memory is vulnerable to seizure activity

    70% of children living with epilepsy report issues with memory in their daily lives (Smith et al., 2006) and over 50% of children with ongoing seizures display weakness in some aspect of memory when formally assessed (Reilly et al., 2014).

    Memory is a complex operation which can be affected by other cognitive processes, such as attention, effort, self-monitoring, speed of information processing, the use of strategies, and organization.

    For memory to work properly, the brain needs to continuously monitor itself. Seizures can interfere with the brain’s self-monitoring process.

    Memories before a seizure can be lost because the brain does not store them properly.

    After a seizure, confusion and fatigue can stop memory processes from working correctly.

    Interictal discharges (i.e., abnormal firing of neurons below a level that would cause a seizure) disrupt the formation and retrieval of memories.

    Memory issues involve consolidating, retaining and transferring newly learned information.

    The most common issues with memory experienced by students living with epilepsy include:

    • Forgetting what they have just heard or read.
    • Forgetting remote events such as special trips they went on.
    • Retrieving words or information that are needed in the moment in order to express their ideas or to participate in class discussions.
    • Abnormally rapid forgetting of information that they had previously learned.

    Strategies to support students who have memory issues

    • Activate learning by making topics meaningful to the student.
    • Find ways to relate the content being discussed to the student’s prior knowledge or interests.
    • Use different learning styles (visual, auditory, kinesthetic).
    • Teach information in clear, small chunks.
    • Establish routines; keep things in the same order.
    • Use hands-on activities.
    • Repeat the important messages and information.
    • Teach mnemonics, and use music cues, drills.
    • Ask the student to generate his or her own memory cues.
    • Use visual aids: photobooks, checklists, task cards, keywords, timetables, post it notes, pictures.
    • Encourage the use of a journal to keep track.
    • Allow the student time to review.
    • Give students and parents review materials and lessons that the student can do at home or at a later date.
    • Recognize that rote learning will require effort and support.
    • Create an environment where students do not have to rely heavily on memory (open book, access to computer, access to notes).
    • Focus less on information retrieval by recall and more on recognition.
    • Avoid tests that emphasize memorization (e.g., fill-in-the-blank items).
    • Provide students with a list of formulas for math and science, having them select and apply the appropriate one.
    • Have the student practice retrieving the information to be learned (using cues, recognition, exercises).
    • Communicate with parents via planners or online about class programs.

    Intellectual reasoning abilities

    Intellectual reasoning abilities refer to general mental abilities.

    Compared to other individuals their age, a greater number of students with epilepsy will experience mild (Low Average), moderate, or significant weaknesses in their intellectual reasoning abilities (Prasad et al., 2014).

    Those with significant weaknesses will meet criteria for an intellectual disability (i.e., at or below the 2nd percentile for their age).

    Overall, approximately 15-25% of children with epilepsy meet criteria for an intellectual disability; however, rates are higher when only children with ongoing seizures are considered (Reilly et al., 2014).

    Strategies to support students with weak reasoning abilities

    • Check for understanding.
    • Provide concrete examples.
    • Teach reasoning overtly by talking out loud, modelling, and offering rehearsal.
    • Be direct – express complex ideas as simply as possible.
    • Provide opportunities for experiential learning.
    • Set up opportunities for learning to be reinforced at home.

    Executive functioning

    Students with epilepsy, as well as those with ADHD and learning disabilities, can display problems with executive functioning.

    Executive functioning refers to a set of self-directed skills including:

    1. Concentrating on things.
    2. Planning and organizing problem solving approaches.
    3. Regulating emotions, behaviour, and attention.
    4. Cueing oneself to use previously learned information.
    5. Initiating activities.

    Strategies to support students with executive functioning and organization

    • Change the environment to support skills.
    • Set up and have the student follow routines; when activities become habitual, they require less active processing and are less likely to be forgotten.
    • Use short instructions and have students check off each step as it is completed.
    • Use visual prompts.
    • Use engaging, varied activities and learning styles.
    • Use eye contact.
    • Modify the tasks to support development.
    • Provide the student with more time.
    • Tailor the pace and time of activities.
    • Provide regular breaks, including those with physical exercises.
    • Limit multi-tasking; focus the student on one activity at a time to reduce the demand on working memory and to limit distractions.
    • Consider the effect of the class atmosphere on learning and remove distractions.
    • Give warnings well ahead of time for changes in routine to aid with transitions.
    • Proactively plan for changes in routine whenever possible.
    • Check notebooks frequently.
    • Have duplicate copies of worksheets for students who misplace items.
    • Model problem-solving explicitly (thinking out loud).
    • Use step-by-step problem-solving approaches and provide a template.
    • Prior to initiating the task, teach the student to divide the activity into multiple steps.
    • Model organizational strategies throughout the school day.
    • Teach students how to use a planner.
    • Break the planner into sections: a calendar with sufficient space for writing daily activities, address book, general to-do list, assignment due date.

    Language and communication

    Children living with epilepsy may experience language difficulties. Sometimes the disturbance relates to difficulty in a broad range of receptive and expressive skills. Some types of epilepsy may produce specific patterns of difficulty.

    Strategies to support students who have language and communication difficulties

    • Speak clearly, slowly and be specific.
    • Use non-verbal communication to enhance verbal instructions.
    • Allow more time and check for understanding.
    • Repeat and rephrase instructions.
    • Use open ended questions to promote dialogue.
    • Use group work and role play.
    • Teach key words.
    • Use visual prompts (objects, photos, pictures, symbols).
    • Classify and group objects and pictures together.
    • Teach singing.
    • Engage the student in conversation – include new words and explain their meaning.
    • Encourage parents to read to the child every day.
    • When the lesson contains a new or interesting word – pause and define the word.
    • Play word games.
    • Have a daily checklist of take-home materials in the student’s planner.
    • Provide a daily schedule on the board or in the student’s planner.
    • Provide parents with important dates/reviews/tests.
    • Support word retrieval.
      • Provide phonemic and/or semantic cue.
      • Encourage visualization and gestures.
      • Encourage self-cueing.
    • Consider consultation with or assessment by speech and language therapist.

    Motor co-ordination

    Children with epilepsy may experience problems in motor functioning, including both reduced fine-motor and gross-motor skills.

    • Slow motor output
    • Weakness in both sides or one side
    • Gait and balance issues
    • Difficulties with coordinated movement

    These issues may have implications for handwriting and note-taking, and for moving between one class and another.

    Strategies for fine motor issues

    • Provide a note taker to scribe for the student.
    • Provide hand-out of board work.
    • Offer the opportunity to take tests orally to access understanding.
    • Provide extra time for assignments and tests.
    • Consider key-boarding as an alternative to printing or cursive writing.
    • Check to see if the student is eligible for Special Equipment (e.g., SEA claim for a computer).

    For More Information

    You can consult with a registered psychologist to find out if psychological interventions might be of help to you. Provincial, territorial and some municipal associations of psychology often maintain referral services. For the names and coordinates of provincial and territorial associations of psychology, go to

    This fact sheet has been prepared for the Canadian Psychological Association by Dr. Mary Lou Smith, University of Toronto, The Hospital for Sick Children; Dr. Elizabeth N. Kerr, The Hospital for Sick Children; Ms. Mary Secco, Epilepsy Southwestern Ontario; and Dr. Karen Bax, Western University.

    Revised: June 22, 2021

    Your opinion matters! Please contact us with any questions or comments about any of the Psychology Works Fact Sheets:

    Canadian Psychological Association
    141 Laurier Avenue West, Suite 702
    Ottawa, Ontario    K1P 5J3
    Tel:  613-237-2144
    Toll free (in Canada):  1-888-472-0657


    Besag, F., Gobbi, G., Caplan, R., Sillanpää, M., Aldenkamp, A., & Dunn, D. W. (2016). Psychiatric and behavioural disorders in children with epilepsy (ILAE Task Force Report): epilepsy and ADHD. Epileptic Disorders, 18(s1), S8-S15.

    Prasad, A. N., Burneo, J. G., & Corbett, B. (2014). Epilepsy, comorbid conditions in Canadian children: analysis of cross-sectional data from cycle 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Children and Youth. Seizure, 23(10), 869-873.

    Reilly, C., Atkinson, P., Das, K. B., Chin, R. F., Aylett, S. E., Burch, V. & Neville, B. G. (2014). Neurobehavioral comorbidities in children with active epilepsy: a population-based study. Pediatrics, 133(6), e1586-e1593.

    Smith, ML., Elliott, I. M., & Lach, L. (2006). Memory outcome after pediatric epilepsy surgery: objective and subjective perspectives. Child Neuropsychology, 12(3), 151-164.

    Smith ML., Gallagher A, Lassonde, M. Cognitive Deficits in Children with Epilepsy. In Duchowny M, Cross H, Arzimanoglou A (Eds.). Pediatric Epilepsy, New York: McGraw-Hill, 2013, pp. 309-322.

    “Psychology Works” Fact Sheet: Helping Children with Epilepsy Succeed in School


    Epilepsy is defined as a “disease of the brain characterized by a predisposition to generate epileptic seizures, and by the cognitive, psychological, and social consequences of this condition” (Fisher et al., 2005).

    Understanding epilepsy and the cognitive, psychological, and social consequences of the condition is the first step in supporting students living with epilepsy. Other Psychology Works Fact Sheets address these consequences.

    Understanding the brain, seizures, and the impact of seizures on brain function

    The human brain contains billions of specialized cells, called neurons. The electrical and chemical signals these cells transmit and receive are at the heart of how the brain functions. Everything we do, think, say, and feel is the result of the signals that are generated by the neurons in the brain.

    The brain is often compared to a computer – a processing unit that receives inputs and generates outputs. However, the brain is so much more than a simple input-output device. The brain is a living organ that modifies itself based on the experiences and the interactions we have with our environment. It is the control centre of our thinking, problem solving, consciousness, emotions, physical movement, and social behaviour. Brain cells form new connections when we have new experiences.

    The lobes of the brain

    Frontal Lobe
    The frontal lobe provides executive control over the brain’s higher functions. Executive functioning is related to self-directed skills, including concentrating on things, planning, organizing, problem solving, as well as cueing ourselves to regulate our emotions and attention, and to use previously learned information.

    Temporal Lobe
    The temporal lobe helps form longer-term memories. Behaviours, emotions and language comprehension are also associated with structures in the temporal lobe.

    Parietal Lobe
    The parietal lobe helps process sensory information (e.g., touch), left and right orientation, as well as aspects of spatial relationships and language functioning.

    Occipital Lobe
    The occipital lobe is involved in visual processing and perception.

    The Brain as a Network
    Many parts of the brain work together to support complex functions. There is communication between different parts of the brain to enable us to carry out complex tasks that are important for school success, such as language, attention, reading, and mathematics.

    What is a seizure?

    Sometimes the neurons in the brain don’t signal properly and cause a sudden burst of electrical energy in the brain or what is known as a seizure.

    Seizure symptoms depend on where in the brain the abnormal bursts of electrical activity occurs. Seizures may be observed as a transient change in sensation, movement, behaviour, or consciousness. Because the brain is responsible for a wide range of functions, there are many different types of seizures.

    Between seizures, some students continue to have heightened electrical discharges in their brain (called interictal discharges) which are not strong enough to cause a seizure but cause transient issues with attention, thinking, memory, and behaviour.

    Epilepsy is more than recurrent seizures

    Epilepsy is a spectrum disorder with varying presentations of:

    1. Seizure frequency
    2. Seizure types
    3. Seizure severity
    4. Seizure control: some students have good seizure control while others have seizures which are persistent and severe
    5. Chronicity: some students outgrow their seizures and others do not
    6. Types of cognitive, psychological, and social problems
    7. Severity of cognitive, psychological, and social problems

    For each student living with epilepsy, the effect of a seizure has on his or her brain and consequently the related cognitive, psychological (behavioural, emotional), and social abilities will be different. While some students with seizures affecting only one area or lobe of the brain may have very specific problems associated with that lobe, many students with epilepsy experience problems across multiple domains. Students living with epilepsy may be similar to students with other types of neurological damage (e.g., Traumatic Brain Injury).

    Some students living with epilepsy will have very few barriers to achievement while others are at risk of poor school performance and poor outcomes as adults.

    Epilepsy is an invisible condition

    If a student walked into a classroom with a cast on his or her arm, we would immediately recognize that he or she had an injury. We would not expect the student to throw a baseball or use a badminton racquet with the injured arm. It would be easy to modify most activities because we could see and understand the impairment.

    Students living with epilepsy have an invisible condition. You cannot tell that they have epilepsy unless they are actively having a seizure. It is not possible to see “the cast” on the part of the brain where the seizures originate.

    The cognitive, psychological, and social consequences associated with epilepsy are frequently unrecognized (Reilly et al., 2014).

    The seizure is the tip of the iceberg. Below the surface of the iceberg lie the invisible or unrecognized consequences: the cognitive, psychological, and social impacts associated with this brain disease. It is important to recognize these consequences to ensure success at school.

    School attendance

    • Students with epilepsy may miss lessons or miss content even when they are present in class.
    • They have higher rates of school absenteeism to recover from seizures, attend medical appointments, and to establish new treatments.
    • Social factors including embarrassment, teasing, and bullying also impact school attendance.
    • Some schools unnecessarily send students home when they have seizure at school or exclude them from activities due to concerns that they may have a seizure.
    • A student who is absent 15 days per school year will have missed the equivalent of one full year of instructions by the end of Grade 12.

    Reducing restrictions at school

    While it may seem like limiting a student’s physical activity is in his or her best interest, doing so may actually encourage social isolation and interfere with many opportunities for the student to learn and practice important physical literacy and social skills.

    Every effort should be made to include students in physical activities such as gym, recess, lunch, extracurricular sports, and field trips. There is evidence that seizures are less likely to occur if the student is engaged in satisfying and motivating activities, whether they are mental or physical.

    Excessive adult monitoring and limit setting may actually increase seizure activity.

    Medication side effects

    Not all students with epilepsy experience medication side effects.

    Side effects are most likely to occur when a new medication is introduced, the dosage of an existing medication is increased, or when the student is on more than one medication.

    Potential side effects of anti-seizure medications may include:

    • Fatigue
    • Drowsiness
    • Slower information processing speed
    • Difficulties with attention and memory
    • Problems with dizziness and coordination
    • Double vision
    • Changes in mood, behaviour, and appetite

    Developing a communication plan with families is helpful to document seizure activity and observations following medication changes.

    Fatigue is a consistent complaint of students living with epilepsy

    The underlying brain abnormality causing the seizures, the recovery after a seizure, and the medications to treat the seizures can make a student feel exhausted.

    Some students have frequent seizures at night causing them to be tired, irritable, or to function poorly the next day.

    Students with epilepsy need plenty of sleep and may go to bed earlier than their peers. They may fall asleep in class or nap when they arrive home from school.

    Fatigue can make it difficult for students with epilepsy to participate fully in academic endeavours and to concentrate for long periods of time. Fatigue may make it difficult to finish homework or to participate in after-school programs.

    Strategies to help students with fatigue

    • Offer less intensive classes later in the day.
    • Reduce the amount of work you expect the student to complete within a specific amount of time.
    • Offer frequent breaks.
    • Do assessments over a series of several days.
    • Reduce the amount of homework you assign.
    • Reduce the course load for older students.
    • Develop a communication plan with the parent and student to document seizure activity, medication changes and side effects.

    Variability in functioning from day to day is typical

    A student’s presentation can be variable from day to day and within days.

    Good Days: You will observe times when a student living with epilepsy is available to learn, engages in discussions, appears to make connections, and displays an even temperament.

    Bad Days: You may observe other times when the student appears to be readily distracted, has forgotten previously learned information, or may be irritable.

    Without support, what does the future hold?

    The potential trajectory for children with epilepsy is demonstrated through adult outcome data:

    Studies around the world indicate that in adulthood, people living with epilepsy have:

    • Lower education
    • Higher unemployment
    • Higher rates of poverty
    • Higher rates of unplanned pregnancy
    • Higher rates of mental health problems

    In Canada, the projected indirect economic cost due to premature death and disability in epilepsy are approximately $3 billion in a year, second only to brain injury among all neurological conditions (PHAC, 2014).

    For students living with epilepsy, school education and learning represent the primary interactive biopsychosocial components associated with their health outcomes.

    Providing school-based support to students with epilepsy has the potential to reduce the burden of epilepsy on the student, parent, and school community. Developing skills and confidence in the early years may alter the negative trajectory for the student with child-onset epilepsy.

    General strategies for teachers to improve school success

    • Meet with the parents to understand the child’s epilepsy and to develop a plan of care.
    • Empower students who had seizures by engaging them in the discussion on what to do and how it feels to have epilepsy.
    • Invite a community-based epilepsy educator to provide you and your colleagues with an epilepsy professional development session.
    • Invite a community-based epilepsy educator to provide age-appropriate videos or presentations explaining epilepsy and seizure first aid to the entire class.
    • Ensure that the entire class understands what to expect when a classmate has a seizure and how they can help.
    • Minimize known seizure triggers: heat, dehydration, lights, stress, fatigue in the classroom.
    • Provide a rest area.
    • Prevent social and emotional challenges by providing proper information to the class following the occurrence of a seizure.
    • Promote social interaction.
    • Keep the child in class following a seizure so they can develop social and emotional coping skills.
    • Participate in epilepsy awareness programs, Purple Day for epilepsy, international days and fundraisers.

    For More Information:

    You can consult with a registered psychologist to find out if psychological interventions might be of help to you. Provincial, territorial and some municipal associations of psychology often maintain referral services. For the names and coordinates of provincial and territorial associations of psychology, go to

    This fact sheet has been prepared for the Canadian Psychological Association by Dr. Mary Lou Smith, University of Toronto, The Hospital for Sick Children; Dr. Elizabeth N. Kerr, The Hospital for Sick Children; Ms. Mary Secco, Epilepsy Southwestern Ontario; and Dr. Karen Bax, Western University.

    Revised: June 22, 2021

    Your opinion matters! Please contact us with any questions or comments about any of the Psychology Works Fact Sheets:

    Canadian Psychological Association
    141 Laurier Avenue West, Suite 702
    Ottawa, Ontario    K1P 5J3
    Tel:  613-237-2144
    Toll free (in Canada):  1-888-472-0657


    Fisher R.S., Van Emde Boas W., Blume W., Elger C., Genton P., Lee P., Engel Jr, J. (2005). Epileptic seizures and epilepsy: Definitions proposed by the International League Against Epilepsy and the International Bureau for Epilepsy. Epilepsia, 46(4):470–472.

    PHAC (2014). Public Health Agency of Canada, & National Population Health Study of Neurological Conditions (Canada). Mapping connections: An understanding of neurological conditions in Canada.

    Reilly, C., Atkinson, P., Das, K. B., Chin, R. F., Aylett, S. E., Burch, V. & Neville, B. G. (2014). Academic achievement in school-aged children with active epilepsy: A population-based study. Epilepsia, 55(12), 1910-1917.



    La Section du stress traumatique de la Société canadienne de psychologie (SCP) est heureuse d’offrir trois (3) bourses d’études en 2021 aux étudiants diplômés canadiens qui étudient des sujets liés au stress traumatique dans le cadre de programmes de recherche et/ou programmes cliniques dans une université canadienne.

    La bourse est de 2 000 $ par étudiant. La date limite pour présenter une demande est le 5 septembre 2021.

    Les demandes doivent être présentées par voie électronique à l’aide du formulaire qui se trouve à l’adresse

    Cliquez ici pour en savoir plus et les critères d’admissibilité des demandeurs.


    La Section du stress traumatique de la Société canadienne de psychologie (SCP) est heureuse d’offrir une subvention de recherche aux chercheurs en début de carrière. Cette subvention vise à financer un projet d’une durée d’un an et s’adresse aux chercheurs canadiens en début de carrière spécialisés dans la recherche sur le stress traumatique.

    Chaque projet bénéficiera d’un financement pouvant atteindre 5 000 dollars. La date limite pour présenter une demande est le 5 septembre 2021.

    Les demandes doivent être présentées par voie électronique à l’aide du formulaire qui se trouve à l’adresse

    Cliquez ici pour en savoir plus et les critères d’admissibilité des demandeurs.

    Les inscriptions sont toujours ouvertes pour le contenu enregistré de la série virtuelle 2021 du SCP

    La SCP est heureuse d’annoncer que les inscriptions sont toujours ouvertes pour le contenu enregistré de la série virtuelle 2021 du SCP.

    Avec, au programme, plus de 1 000 communications, une sélection extraordinaire de conférences plénières et de conférences organisées par les sections, et six mois d’accès sur demande, cet événement est à ne pas manquer!

    La cérémonie de remise des prix et l’assemblée générale annuelle de la SCP

    Inscrivez-vous à l’AGA virtuelle 2021 Il se tiendra virtuellement le mercredi 9 juin 2021 à 13 h (HNE)

    Le rapport annuel de la SCP de 2021 ainsi que les documents en vue de l’AGA peut être consulté ici :

    Déclaration de l’SCP sur la découverte de la fosse commune des enfants Autochtones à Kamloops

    La Société canadienne de psychologie (SCP) est horrifiée d’apprendre la découverte des restes de 215 enfants sur le site d’un pensionnat indien de Kamloops en Colombie-Britannique. Nos pensées et notre profonde sympathie vont à la Première Nation Tk’emlúps te Secwépemc et aux communautés autochtones plongées dans le deuil par cette perte incommensurable. Nous accompagnons les communautés autochtones dans leur deuil, leur colère et leur tristesse. La SCP est un partenaire et un allié, et s’est engagée avec fermeté à contribuer à la guérison, à la santé mentale et au bien-être des collectivités autochtones de tout le pays. Pour en savoir plus, consultez la réponse de la psychologie au rapport de la Commission de vérité et réconciliation du Canada :

    Prolongation de la date limite des possibilités du financement offertes par le Centre d’excellence sur la douleur chronique

    A titre de chef de file national de la recherche sur la douleur chronique chez les vétérans, le Centre d’excellence sur la douleur chronique pour les vétérans canadiens est heureux d’offrir les possibilités de financement, décrite ci-dessous, en 2021-2022.

    Veuillez cliquer sur les possibilités pour en savoir plus et soumettre une demande.
    Si vous avez des questions, n’hésitez pas à nous les poser par courriel à

    Financement d’une recherche Date limite des demandes
    Déclaration d’intérêt : Concepts optimaux permettant de mesurer le domaine « Aptitudes à la vie civile et préparation »   31 mai 2021
    Déclaration d’intérêt : Concepts optimaux permettant de mesurer le domaine « Logement et contexte physique » 31 mai 2021
    Déclaration d’intérêt : Besoins des populations de vétérans afin d’orienter les fournisseurs de soins de santé civils 31 mai 2021
    Déclaration d’intérêt : Efficacité de l’encadrement par les pairs vétérans 31 mai 2021
    Bourses d’études supérieures
    Bourse d’études supérieures François Dupéré – Maîtrise 31 mai 2021
    Bourse d’études supérieures du Centre d’excellence – Maîtrise 31 mai 2021
    Bourses d’études supérieures du Centre d’excellence – Doctorat 31 mai 2021


    Message concernant le programme d’assurance responsabilité civile SCP/CSPP, BMS

    BMS, CPA logo
    Madame, Monsieur,

    Nous espérons que vous vous portez bien pendant cette période difficile.

    En mai, le courtier du programme d’assurance de la SCP/CSPP[1], BMS, vous fera parvenir l’avis de renouvellement de la police d’assurance responsabilité pour l’année 2021-2022. Vous constaterez que la prime d’assurance responsabilité professionnelle a augmenté cette année. Cette augmentation est le résultat de l’augmentation des réclamations, où des millions de dollars de coûts d’indemnisation ont été payés dans le cadre du programme de psychologie pour défendre et protéger les membres assurés.

    La prime facturée cette année est étayée par une analyse actuarielle et a été négociée pour maintenir l’augmentation au montant le plus bas acceptable pour l’assureur pour renouveler la police.

    Couverture d’assurance responsabilité professionnelle en 2021-2022

    Votre politique SCP/CSPP est en place pour couvrir les frais de défense juridique et les jugements pécuniaires en cas de plainte ou de poursuite en responsabilité professionnelle contre vous. Chaque membre assuré peut accéder jusqu’à 10 M $ pour se défendre contre les sinistres assurés.

    Un autre élément important est la couverture des frais juridiques réglementaires, où les membres peuvent accéder jusqu’à 300 000 $ pour payer les frais de défense juridique associés à une plainte déposée auprès de votre organisme de réglementation (ordre). Il s’agit d’un élément essentiel de la couverture, car plus de 80% des réclamations faites auprès du programme d’assurance de la SCP/CSPP au cours d’une année donnée concernent des plaintes déposées à l’ordre professionnel, où les frais de défense juridique peuvent aller de dizaines à des centaines de milliers de dollars.

    Nous sommes conscients que, dans le but de réduire les réclamations d’assurance, d’autres programmes ou polices offerts aux psychologues ont supprimé la couverture des frais juridiques à payer pour se défendre contre une plainte de l’ordre et pour les audiences disciplinaires. Même si cela peut faire baisser les primes, cela prive les psychologues du type de couverture d’assurance dont ils ont le plus besoin. BMS s’engage à s’assurer que les membres bénéficient d’une couverture complète, qui tient compte des besoins et de l’exposition aux reclamations liées aux activités professionnelles des psychologues.

    Les psychologues qui sont membres à la fois de la SCP et d’une association provinciale/territoriale participante continueront d’obtenir une réduction de primes. N’hésitez pas à communiquer avec BMS au 1-855-318-6038 ou à si vous avez des questions sur la police. Si vous avez des questions au sujet de la gestion du programme, écrivez à

    Nous vous remercions de participer au programme d’assurance de la SCP/CSPP et de la confiance que vous accordez aux associations de psychologues du Canada. Faites attention à vous et portez-vous bien.

    [1] Le programme d’assurance de la SCP/CSPP est offert aux membres de la SCP ainsi qu’aux membres des associations provinciales et territoriales de psychologues qui font partie du Conseil des sociétés professionnelles de psychologues (CSPP).

    Invitation: 29 April, 14:00 UTC | 16:00 CEST The two psychologies of the pandemic: from ‘fragile rationality’ to ‘collective resilience’

    As part of the International Science Council’s ongoing engagement with scholars and contemporary thinkers, this webinar, in partnership with the International Union of Psychological Science will consider how the pandemic is impacting on the psychological sciences.

    The webinar will address the following two questions:
    1. How have different branches of psychology provided useful insights into thinking about the pandemic and in formulating responses to the pandemic?
    2. How has the pandemic impacted on developments within psychology and on the changing relationship of psychology to other disciplines?

    The webinar, featuring Stephen Reicher as the Keynote Speaker will be moderated by Craig Calhoun with Rifka Weehuizen, Shahnaaz Suffla and Jay Van Bavel as discussants.

    Saths Cooper, Deputy Chair of the ISC Committee on Freedom & Responsibility in Science (CFRS), and Past President of the International Union of Psychological Science will introduce the webinar.

    “This timely webinar lays bare some of the stark contradictions that COVID-19 has exposed. Pandemic profiteering, vaccine nationalism and other narrow approaches to our global condition only deepen the chasm, increase insecurity and damage the opportunity to create a better future. Our fractured world needs healing and deeper understanding of the issues that the webinar will cover” Saths Cooper

    To see more information and to register, please visit:

    Posted in Non classé

    Science Brief: Behavioural Science Principles for Enhancing Adherence to Public Health Measures

    This Science Brief was prepared on behalf of the Ontario Behavioural Science Working Group and the Ontario COVID-19 Science Advisory Table.

    The brief describes how we can use behavioural science principles to maintain and enhance adherence to public health messaging, including promising strategies to increase effective masking and physical distancing.

    Read the Science Brief

    Commentaires de la SCP, de l’ACMMSM et du CCR sur le budget fédéral de 2021 (avril 2021)

    Le 19 avril, le gouvernement fédéral a présenté son premier budget en plus de 24 mois. La SCP a publié un communiqué de presse soulignant que la reprise après la pandémie dépendra de nos investissements en santé mentale.

    L’Alliance canadienne pour la maladie mentale et la santé mentale (ACMMSM) a également commenté publiquement le budget, soulignant qu’il s’agit d’une occasion manquée d’investir dans la santé mentale des Canadiens. Le Consortium canadien pour la recherche (CCR) a également exprimé ses préoccupations au sujet du peu d’investissements prévus dans la recherche fondamentale

    Trois nouveaux webinaires sur les débouchés de carrière en psychologie offerts prochainement aux étudiants affiliés de la SCP!

    Encouragée par l’énorme succès remporté par sa première foire de l’emploi, tenue en novembre 2020, la SCP, en collaboration avec la Section de la psychologie industrielle/organisationnelle de la SCP, offrira aux étudiants affiliés de la SCP, au cours du mois de mai, trois webinaires portant sur les débouchés de carrière en psychologie.

    Les webinaires se pencheront sur certains des éléments les plus importants à prendre en compte pour lancer et faire progresser sa carrière en psychologie :

    1. Searching for a job and writing a customized CV/cover letter (6 mai de 13 h à 14 h HE)
    2. Preparing for an interview (13 mai de 13 h à 14 h HE) (webinaire donné en anglais; présentateur bilingue)
    3. Negotiating an employment agreement/contract/salary (20 mai de 13 h à 14 h 30 HE).

    Veuillez noter que le nombre de places est limité à chaque webinaire et que seuls les étudiants affiliés de la SCP peuvent s’y inscrire.

    Inscrivez-vous dès maintenant à l’un ou à l’ensemble des webinaires. Les frais d’inscription sont de 10 $ par webinaire.

    Série « La psychologie peut vous aider » : L’asthme chez les enfants

    Qu’est-ce que l’asthme?

    L’asthme est une affection médicale qui se traduit par une inflammation des voies respiratoires dans les poumons. L’asthme est actuellement incurable et est donc considéré comme une maladie chronique. Même si les symptômes de l’asthme disparaissent chez certains enfants, l’asthme nécessite souvent une prise en charge à long terme. Le principal symptôme de l’asthme est une toux récurrente et il s’accompagne parfois d’autres symptômes comme de l’essoufflement, une respiration sifflante ou un serrement de poitrine. Il s’agit de la maladie chronique la plus fréquente dans le monde affectant les voies respiratoires inférieures des enfants.

    L’asthme touche environ 8,3 % des enfants (Akinbami et coll., 2016). Les garçons sont plus susceptibles de souffrir d’asthme jusqu’à l’adolescence (c.-à-d., 11-12 ans), mais les filles sont plus susceptibles d’en souffrir pendant l’adolescence et jusqu’à l’âge adulte. Plusieurs facteurs peuvent accroître, chez l’enfant, le risque de développer de l’asthme ou d’en ressentir les symptômes. Les principaux facteurs de risque sont l’obésité, l’exposition à la fumée ou à l’alcool pendant la grossesse ou après la naissance, le fait d’être en présence d’autres produits chimiques ou toxines dans l’environnement (p. ex., pesticides), de vivre dans une résidence ou un endroit poussiéreux ou d’avoir déjà souffert d’infections respiratoires. L’asthme a également une composante génétique : de 35 % à 95 % des enfants asthmatiques ont également un parent atteint de la maladie. En fait, l’un des principaux facteurs de l’asthme est la tendance génétique à développer une maladie allergique. Enfin, les enfants qui vivent dans la pauvreté et qui résident dans certaines régions du Canada sont plus susceptibles de souffrir d’asthme. Cela indique que la situation socio-économique, la région où l’on vit et la race, en privilégiant certains plutôt que d’autres, peuvent jouer un rôle dans l’asthme, et met en évidence le fait que l’asthme a tendance à être plus fréquent dans les groupes marginalisés.

    Si vous suspectez que votre enfant souffre d’asthme, un médecin pourra en établir le diagnostic en utilisant un test respiratoire simple, comme la spirométrie; on demandera alors à votre enfant d’expirer dans un capteur après avoir pris une profonde respiration. Le diagnostic de l’asthme est généralement basé sur une diminution ou une obstruction du flux d’air et est habituellement confirmé si les symptômes s’améliorent après l’utilisation d’un bronchodilatateur. Les bronchodilatateurs et les autres traitements de l’asthme sont expliqués à la section suivante.

    Comment traite-t-on l’asthme?

    Le traitement de l’asthme chez les enfants dépend généralement de la gravité des symptômes. Votre médecin pourrait suggérer un bronchodilatateur (c.-à-d. un inhalateur de secours) comme traitement de première intention afin de détendre les muscles des poumons et élargir les voies respiratoires. Chez les enfants dont les poumons semblent fonctionner plutôt bien, mais qui éprouvent des symptômes diurnes occasionnels, les inhalateurs de secours, comme le salbutamol, sont souvent suffisants. Ces inhalateurs sont destinés à soulager rapidement les symptômes.

    Chez les enfants dont les symptômes sont persistants, les corticostéroïdes en inhalation (c.-à-d. un inhalateur de contrôle), comme la mométasone, pourraient être proposés pour soulager les symptômes. Les médecins travaillent généralement avec les familles et les enfants pour trouver la meilleure dose de médicament.

    Si les bronchodilatateurs ou les corticostéroïdes en inhalation ne fonctionnent pas, quelle que soit la dose, les médecins pourraient rechercher un autre diagnostic parce que les bronchodilatateurs ou les corticostéroïdes en inhalation se sont avérés efficaces chez la plupart des enfants asthmatiques. Les allergies, la sinusite (une inflammation des sinus), le reflux acide, l’activité physique (p. ex., courir ou faire du sport), les réactions à certaines moisissures ou les affections des cordes vocales peuvent également entraîner des symptômes semblables à ceux de l’asthme.

    Dans les cas graves d’asthme, un médecin peut prescrire un médicament à prendre par voie orale, souvent en association avec des bronchodilatateurs ou des corticostéroïdes en inhalation. Parmi ces médicaments figurent des corticostéroïdes oraux, comme la prednisone, ou d’autres médicaments destinés à réduire l’inflammation des voies respiratoires. Les médecins peuvent proposer des médicaments administrés par injection (p. ex., immunothérapie spécifique ou omalizumab) dans les cas où les autres traitements ne sont pas efficaces ou ne sont pas recommandés.

    En plus des traitements médicaux, on pourra recommander des interventions psychologiques pour aider les patients asthmatiques, et ce, pour de nombreuses raisons. Par exemple, certaines situations peuvent « déclencher » les symptômes d’asthme, comme les exercices physiques intenses ou le fait de rester trop longtemps au froid. Ainsi, le traitement psychologique pourra aider l’enfant à reconnaître ces déclencheurs et les limiter afin de maîtriser les symptômes, et à trouver d’autres moyens de pratiquer des activités agréables. Pour être optimale, la prise en charge de l’asthme peut faire appel à une combinaison d’interventions médicales et psychologiques, qui sont parfois difficiles à mettre en œuvre et à gérer par les familles.

    Que peuvent faire les psychologues pour aider les enfants asthmatiques et leur famille?

    Les psychologues peuvent aider à gérer plusieurs aspects de l’asthme, y compris ceux décrits ci-dessous :

    a.      Perception des symptômes

    Les enfants ou les adolescents peuvent avoir parfois de la difficulté à décrire leurs symptômes ou le soulagement que leur apportent leurs médicaments. Quelque 15 % à 60 % des patients asthmatiques ont du mal à décrire les symptômes qu’ils ressentent (Janssens et coll., 2009), ce qui peut entraîner une utilisation excessive de médicaments.

    Les psychologues peuvent aider les enfants et les adolescents à apprendre des façons de nommer et de décrire facilement leurs symptômes. Pour ce faire, le psychologue apprendra à l’enfant à porter une attention accrue sur ses sensations corporelles et à reconnaître les situations dans lesquelles les symptômes peuvent se manifester. De même, les psychologues peuvent aider les enfants à reconnaître les situations qui sont susceptibles de déclencher leurs symptômes (p. ex., le temps froid). Ces interventions contribuent à améliorer la prise en charge de l’asthme.

    b.      Adaptation

    L’asthme est souvent une maladie stressante qui nécessite des ajustements difficiles sur le plan psychologique, émotionnel et comportemental. Les psychologues peuvent aider les enfants et les familles en abordant avec eux des stratégies qui pourraient les aider à faire face à l’asthme.

    Certaines situations sont particulièrement difficiles pour les enfants asthmatiques et leur famille, comme changer d’école ou de médicament. Un psychologue peut travailler avec les familles pour les encourager à utiliser des stratégies d’adaptation utiles, comme la résolution de problèmes, plutôt que des stratégies inutiles, comme le déni ou le fait d’ignorer le problème. Des recherches ont montré que l’utilisation de modes d’adaptation efficaces peut avoir un effet positif sur la qualité de vie des enfants (Braido et coll., 2012).

    c.       Adhésion thérapeutique

    De nombreux facteurs peuvent empêcher les enfants et les familles d’adhérer aux traitements prescrits ou suggérés par les professionnels de la santé. Parmi ces facteurs figurent une mauvaise compréhension de la façon de prendre les médicaments, la gêne que cause la prise des médicaments en public, le déni entourant la maladie, la difficulté à intégrer les traitements dans un horaire quotidien, l’oubli ou la méconnaissance de l’importance de la gestion de la maladie.

    Les psychologues peuvent aider les enfants et les familles à déterminer les obstacles qui les empêchent d’adhérer au traitement. Par exemple, ils peuvent leur apprendre des stratégies adaptées et sensibiliser les familles sur l’importance de prendre les médicaments et de structurer la journée de manière à intégrer le traitement. Les psychologues peuvent ensuite aider les enfants et les familles à apporter des changements concrets pour les aider à respecter la prise des médicaments.

    L’adhésion thérapeutique peut devenir particulièrement difficile lorsque l’enfant devient plus autonome et commence à prendre ses médicaments lui-même. Beaucoup de parents sont très désireux d’aider leur enfant à adhérer à son traitement médicamenteux, mais il peut être difficile de transférer les responsabilités du parent à l’enfant pendant cette période où l’enfant développe peu à peu son indépendance. Les psychologues peuvent se concentrer sur certaines questions, comme la motivation et l’établissement de rappels pour aider les enfants plus âgés à continuer de respecter leur traitement à mesure qu’ils gagnent en autonomie.

    d.      Stratégies à développer par les parents

    Élever un enfant asthmatique peut être particulièrement difficile, surtout parce qu’il a été démontré que les enfants asthmatiques présentent davantage de problèmes émotionnels et comportementaux que leurs pairs non asthmatiques. Ainsi, les parents qui ont un enfant asthmatique sont susceptibles de déclarer des niveaux plus élevés de stress ou de détresse psychologique.

    Le psychologue peut travailler avec les soignants (seuls ou ensemble) pour résoudre les problèmes liés à la prestation des soins, comme la gestion du stress, la régulation des émotions, l’apprentissage de stratégies d’adaptation efficaces, l’optimisation des pratiques parentales, l’amélioration des interactions qu’entretiennent les parents et les autres membres de la famille avec les enfants et le soutien de l’adhésion au traitement médicamenteux.

    e.      Gestion de l’anxiété associée à l’asthme

    Les enfants qui présentent des symptômes d’anxiété ou des troubles anxieux peuvent faire face à des problèmes particuliers en lien avec leur asthme. Chez les enfants plus anxieux, la détresse apparaît lorsqu’ils se mettent à associer l’essoufflement lié à l’anxiété et l’asthme.

    Les psychologues peuvent aider les enfants et les familles à reconnaître que l’essoufflement est également un symptôme courant de l’anxiété, et ils peuvent aider les enfants à développer des stratégies afin de faire la distinction entre les situations susceptibles de provoquer des problèmes respiratoires dus à l’anxiété ou à l’asthme, et d’envisager différemment ces situations. Ils pourraient également examiner les moyens de maîtriser l’inquiétude (p. ex., exercices de relaxation) qui naît en présence de véritables symptômes d’asthme.

    Quels types d’interventions les psychologues utilisent-ils pour aider les personnes souffrant d’asthme?

    Les psychologues peuvent utiliser différents types de thérapies ou de techniques lorsqu’ils fournissent de l’aide aux personnes qui souffrent d’asthme. Deux types de traitement courants sont décrits ci-dessous.

    a. Thérapie cognitivo-comportementale (TCC)

    La thérapie cognitivo-comportementale (TCC) est un type de psychothérapie qui s’intéresse aux pensées, aux émotions et aux comportements. Plusieurs stratégies mentionnées dans la présente fiche d’information peuvent être intégrées à un plan de TCC pour aborder les difficultés liées à l’asthme. Par exemple, les plans de TCC incluent souvent de la sensibilisation sur la maladie, l’identification des comportements qui nuisent au traitement et la prise en charge de l’anxiété associée aux symptômes.

    En ce qui concerne la dimension cognitive de la TCC, les psychologues peuvent aider en amenant les enfants et les familles à examiner les pensées qui sont susceptibles de nuire à la prise en charge de l’asthme de l’enfant. Par exemple, l’idée que les médicaments ne sont pas très importants, le fait de s’inquiéter de ce que pensent les autres enfants des médicaments contre l’asthme ou les craintes des parents face à la possibilité que leur enfant prenne ses médicaments incorrectement sont des attitudes qui peuvent faire obstacle à la gestion optimale de l’asthme. Les psychologues qui utilisent la TCC aideront généralement les enfants et les familles à améliorer leur fonctionnement en les aidant à remarquer les pensées peu utiles qu’ils entretiennent au sujet de l’asthme, à remettre en question ces pensées et à adopter des comportements visant à expérimenter et à consolider des pensées plus utiles.

    b. Thérapie d’acceptation et d’engagement (TAE)

    La thérapie d’acceptation et d’engagement (TAE) s’intéresse aux stratégies d’acceptation et de pleine conscience qui peuvent aider les gens à adopter des comportements conformes à leurs valeurs.

    Les psychologues qui utilisent la TAE peuvent aider les parents à être conscients de leurs pensées et de leurs émotions entourant l’asthme, à accepter les situations difficiles et à s’y adapter et à se comporter de manière à aider leurs enfants dans le respect de leurs valeurs.

    Lorsque prodiguée directement aux adolescents, la TAE s’est également révélée utile. Les psychologues peuvent travailler avec les adolescents en se concentrant sur les mêmes sujets que ceux abordés par leurs parents : prise de conscience accrue des pensées et des émotions, augmentation de l’acceptation et de la souplesse dans les situations impliquant l’asthme et prise de décisions touchant leur santé qui sont conformes à leurs valeurs.

    Les interventions psychologiques sont-elles efficaces?

    Pour faire court, oui, les interventions psychologiques sont efficaces pour traiter l’asthme! La recherche a montré que les interventions psychologiques qui comportent des composantes éducatives, cognitives, comportementales et familiales sont bénéfiques pour les enfants et les adolescents (Oland et coll., 2017). Ces interventions se sont révélées utiles à la maison, en milieu scolaire et en milieu médical.

    Toutefois, il convient de noter que la plupart des recherches menées sur l’asthme chez les enfants ont été menées de manière différente. Par exemple, les études portaient souvent sur des enfants présentant des niveaux d’asthme différents ou testaient le niveau des symptômes observés chez les enfants à l’aide d’outils différents. Ainsi, les résultats des recherches sont très différents les uns des autres. Un examen approfondi des interventions psychologiques utilisées pour le traitement de l’asthme chez les enfants a été proposé en septembre 2019 (Sharrad et coll., 2019). Il est donc probable que les conclusions de cet examen permettront d’apporter un éclairage supplémentaire sur la prise en charge de l’asthme.

    Même si les interventions psychologiques se sont avérées efficaces (et souvent très importantes pour améliorer les résultats pour les familles), étant donné que la prise en charge médicale est le traitement primaire de l’asthme, les familles devraient communiquer avec un médecin s’ils suspectent que leur enfant souffre d’asthme ou s’ils croient que le traitement médical prodigué à leur enfant pose problème.

    Ressources utiles

    Les sites Web ci-dessous proposent des ressources utiles sur l’asthme :

    1. Asthma Canada :
    2. Association pulmonaire du Canada :
    3. The Children’s Asthma Education Centre :
    4. You Can Control Your Asthma :
    5. Société canadienne de thoracologie :

    Pour plus d’informations :

    Pour savoir si une intervention psychologique peut vous aider, consultez un psychologue agréé. Les associations provinciales et territoriales de psychologues, et certaines associations municipales de psychologues offrent des services d’aiguillage. Pour connaître les noms et les coordonnées des associations provinciales et territoriales de psychologues, veuillez vous rendre à l’adresse

    La présente fiche d’information a été préparée pour la Société canadienne de psychologie par Jason Isaacs (étudiant au doctorat à l’Université Dalhousie), en collaboration avec le Dr Dimas Mateos (médecin au Centre de soins de santé IWK) et Martha Greechan (infirmière autorisée au Centre de soins de santé IWK).

    Date : 2021-03-17

    Votre opinion est importante! Si vous avez des questions ou des commentaires sur les fiches d’information de la série « La psychologie peut vous aider », veuillez communiquer avec nous :

    Société canadienne de psychologie
    141, avenue Laurier Ouest, bureau 702
    Ottawa (Ontario) K1P 5J3
    Tél. : 613-237-2144
    Numéro sans frais (au Canada) :  1-888-472-0657

    Références :

    Akinbami, L. J., Simon, A. E. et Rossen, L. M. (2016). Changing trends in asthma prevalence among children. Pediatrics, 137(1), e20152354.

    Braido, F., Baiardini, I., Bordo, A., Menoni, S., Di Marco, F., Centanni, S., … et Canonica, G. W. (2012). Coping with asthma: Is the physician able to identify patient’s behaviour? Respiratory Medicine, 106(12), 1625-1630.

    Janssens, T., Verleden, G., De Peuter, S., Van Diest, I. et Van den Bergh, O. (2009). Inaccurate perception of asthma symptoms: a cognitive–affective framework and implications for asthma treatment. Clinical Psychology Review, 29(4), 317-327.

    Oland, A. A., Booster, G. D. et Bender, B. G. (2017). Psychological and lifestyle risk factors for asthma exacerbations and morbidity in children. World Allergy Organization Journal, 10(1), 35.

    Sharrad, K. J., Sanwo, O., Carson-Chahhoud, K. V. et Pike, K. C. (2019). Psychological interventions for asthma in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2019(9).


    Avis de convocation à l’assemblée générale annuelle de 2021

    La quatre-vingt-deuxième assemblée générale annuelle des membres de la Société canadienne de psychologie aura lieu virtuellement le mercredi 9 juin 2021 à 13 h (EST), aux fins de :

    1. recevoir et examiner le rapport annuel du président et des comités de la société, et approuver le procès-verbal de l’assemblée générale annuelle précédente;
    2. recevoir et examiner le bilan financier, le rapport du vérificateur et tout changement apporté aux frais d’adhésion et d’affiliation;
    3. nommer un vérificateur; et
    4. élire les membres du conseil d’administration.

    PAR DÉCRET DU CONSEIL D’ADMINISTRATION, le sixième jour de avril 2021.
    Karen R. Cohen, Ph. D.
    Chef de la direction

    Appel de mises en candidature en vue de l’élection du conseil d’administration de la SCP de 2021

    Nous sollicitons les candidatures pour le poste suivant :

    • Administrateur non désigné

    Remarque : la durée du mandat de tous les membres du conseil d’administration est de trois ans (à compter de juin).

    En vertu au paragraphe 5.04 des règlements administratifs, les administrateurs doivent être élus par les membres par résolution ordinaire à une assemblée annuelle des membres au cours de laquelle l’élection des administrateurs est requise.

    Instructions relatives aux mises en candidature

    Conformément au paragraphe 5.06 des règlements administratifs, les membres peuvent présenter une candidature aux postes ouverts au conseil d’administration, au moins 30 jours et pas plus de 65 jours avant la date de l’assemblée générale annuelle des membres (AGA). Le vote électronique par anticipation sera lancé avant l’AGA. Le vote par anticipation se fera par voie électronique.

    Les membres et les Fellows de la Société canadienne de psychologie sont invités à proposer des candidatures aux postes mentionnés ci-dessus. Chaque candidature doit renfermer le curriculum vitæ du candidat, lequel doit mentionner la formation du candidat, les postes qu’il/elle occupe ou a déjà occupés et ses activités professionnelles et/ou de recherche. Elle doit être accompagnée de quatre lettres de soutien et d’une lettre de la personne qui propose le candidat, qui indique le poste pour lequel le candidat est proposé, confirme l’appui à la personne proposée et inclut une déclaration statuant que la personne qui propose la candidature s’est assurée que le candidat est disposé à se porter candidat. La lettre de mise en candidature et les lettres de soutien doivent provenir d’un membre ou d’un Fellow de la SCP. En outre, chaque candidature doit être accompagnée d’une déclaration du candidat, ne dépassant pas 250 mots, où sont indiqués le diplôme le plus élevé obtenu par le candidat et le(s) postes qu’il occupe, ainsi que les titres de compétence, les prix importants et les autorisations détenues. Mais surtout, la lettre devrait expliquer en détail les qualités, les intérêts et les objectifs que le candidat peut apporter à sa candidature, ainsi qu’une photo à utiliser sur le bulletin électronique. 

    Les noms et les documents à l’appui des candidats doivent parvenir au siège social de la SCP avant le 10 mai 2021 et être envoyés par courriel à :

    Pour prendre connaissance de la composition actuelle du conseil d’administration, veuillez cliquer ici.

    Nous vous invitons à encourager vos collègues et vos amis à envisager de siéger au conseil d’administration de la SCP. Votre association a besoin de vous. Le dynamisme et la réussite de l’organisation dépendent de l’engagement de ses membres! 

    **Veuillez noter que les affiliés et les associés de la SCP ne sont pas autorisés à se présenter au conseil d’administration de la SCP.

    Les premiers ministres s’intéressent aux pratiques prometteuses en santé mentale et en traitement des dépendances (mars 2021)

    En janvier, les premiers ministres ont lancé une série de balados, intitulée Pratiques prometteuses, qui est consacrée aux innovations réalisées dans les provinces ou les territoires en matière de santé mentale et de traitement des dépendances, en mettant l’accent sur les collectivités rurales, éloignées ou du Nord. Heather Hadjistavropoulos, membre de la SCP, figurait parmi les intervenants d’un balado présenté en mars. La SCP a félicité le premier ministre Silver (Yukon) d’avoir mené cette importante initiative.

    Examen de la législation sur l’AMM et examen indépendant par des experts (mars 2021)

    Avec l’adoption du projet de loi C-7 – Loi modifiant le Code criminel (aide médicale à mourir [AMM]), le gouvernement fédéral doit mettre sur pied un groupe d’experts chargé d’examiner les protocoles et les mesures de sauvegarde relatives à l’AMM dans le cas de personnes atteintes d’une maladie mentale, et ce, au cours de la prochaine année. La SCP a écrit aux ministres de la Justice et de la Santé afin de demander qu’un psychologue, qui a une bonne expertise en matière d’AMM, fasse partie du groupe d’experts et participe à son travail. En 2020, un groupe de travail de la SCP a publié un rapport sur l’aide médicale à mourir et un guide de pratique clinique pour les psychologues impliqués dans les décisions de fin de vie

    Voices With Impact 2021: Film Premiere & Festival of Ideas

    June 21-25, 2021

    Voices With Impact
      Location: Virtual (must register for individual session links)
      Contact Phone Number: (647) 716-4918
      Contact E-Mail:
      Event Link:

      From June 21 to June 25, Art With Impact will be hosting a free, online short film festival focused on stories of Black and immigrant mental health. The festival kicks off with a screening of short films, followed by a series of virtual workshops around these topics. The festival sessions will center the voices and experiences of Black and immigrant folks, while being open to the broader community.

      Sign up for the different sessions for free through the event link! Registration is required.

    Congrès national virtuel de la SCP de 2021

    7 au 25 juin 2021

    CPA 2021 Virtual Conference Logo

    Où : Virtual
    site web:

    La SCP est heureuse d’annoncer que la période d’inscription à son 82e congrès national annuel est ouverte. Le congrès se tiendra du 7 au 25 juin 2021, et sera précédé par les ateliers précongrès, qui se dérouleront du 31 mai au 5 juin 2021, tout cela en mode virtuel; c’est un événement à ne pas manquer!


    An Integrative Mind-Body Approach to Hypnosis

    June 4 – 5, 2021

    Canadian Society of Clinical Hypnosis - Ontario Division

    Goal Management Training® Train-the-Trainer Workshop

    May 27, 2021

    Goal Management Training® Train-the-Trainer Workshop
    Location: Virtual
    Contact Phone Number: (416) 785-2500
    Contact E-Mail:
    Event Link:

    Goal Management Training® (GMT) is a leading evidence-based intervention for treatment of patients with impairments in concentration, planning, and effective task completion, known as executive functions. It is an interactive program designed to improve the organization of goals and the ability to achieve them for people experiencing executive function impairment, including the long-term effects of COVID-19. Join the next GMT Train-the-Trainer Workshop, led by Dr. Brian Levine, Ph.D., C.Psych., ABPP-cn, on May 27, 2021, to learn the latest on the assessment of executive functions and their rehabilitation with GMT. Attendees of this workshop will gain priority access to new electronic resources and protocol adaptations to increase the flexibility of delivery of GMT across clinical contexts. Get 10% off if you register by Friday, May 7!

    Please visit for more details.

    Déclaration de la SCP sur le projet de loi 35 du Nouveau-Brunswick (mars 2021)

    La SCP a transmis une lettre au gouvernement du Nouveau-Brunswick, dans laquelle nous expliquons notre position sur l’utilisation des tests psychologiques et nous nous opposons aux articles du projet de loi [] qui proposent que les enseignants qualifiés puissent administrer des tests de niveau C.

    « La Société canadienne de psychologie a publié récemment un document d’orientation sur la sécurité des tests psychologiques, dans laquelle est décrite la formation nécessaire pour utiliser les tests psychologiques dans le cadre d’une évaluation du fonctionnement cognitif, émotionnel et comportemental d’une personne. La SCP est d’avis que les psychologues sont particulièrement bien formés pour effectuer des évaluations psychologiques, qui comprennent, sans s’y limiter, l’administration d’un seul test. La SCP s’oppose à tout diagnostic, traitement ou plan de rattrapage pris sur la base des résultats d’un seul test psychologique. »

    Sun Life Group Benefits Coverage for Psychological Services (March 2021)

    Sun Life recently released the document Shaping group benefits: Employer insights that are helping guide the plans of the future, which is intended to help employers shape their (health) benefits for employees.  Importantly, following discussions initiated by CPA, Sun Life included the CPA’s recommendation to increase coverage for psychological services to $3,500-$4,000.  Many employers currently cap their coverage in the $500-$1,000 range. This step is an important recognition by one of Canada’s largest insurers of the value to employers in providing meaningful amounts of coverage for psychological services.

    McGill Summer Institute for School Psychology – Virtual Conference

    May 25th to May 28th, 2021

    McGill Summer Institute for School Psychology – Virtual Conference
      Location: Virtual
      Contact Phone Number: (514) 398-4242
      Contact E-Mail:
      Event Link:

      This year’s conference will feature 4 English and 2 French Workshops. The topics covered through the English Workshops will include recent findings and interventions on service provision for immigrant/marginalized children (Dr. Doris Paez), the role of educational technology in teaching/learning processes (Dr. Adam Dubé), bullying interventions (Dr. Amanda Nickerson), and child sexual abuse (Dr. Rachel Langevin). While our French Workshops will include recent findings and interventions related to trauma-informed care (Dre. Delphine Collin-Vézina), and autism & cognition (Dre. Isabelle Soulières).

      As mandated by professional orders (OPQ and CPA), all our applied workshops will contribute to the continuing education of attendees. This conference is an excellent opportunity for mental health professionals and students alike, from across Canada and the United States, to foster new relationships and promote professional development.

      Registration is open until May 24th. For more information regarding registration, please visit:

      Abstract submission for poster presentation will be open until April 9th. All abstracts will be received by McGill professors in the field of School and Educational Psychology. Please visit:

    Embedding Sleep:

    May 19 – June 30, 2021

    CambiumEd Consulting Inc
      Location: Online
      Contact Phone Number: (780) 702-8905
      Contact E-Mail:
      Event Link:

      Sleep problems are reaching an epidemic level in our society, especially with the current pandemic stresses. Hypnosis is often recommended and can be effective for sleep problems, but most published scripts are targeted towards simple insomnia – difficulty falling asleep in the absence of significant sleep or co-morbid mental health challenges. Most of our clients are much more complex.

      Embedding Sleep is a 7 week, online course that offers an introduction to sleep disorders (both primary and secondary to other mental health challenges) as well as practical, psychoeducational, and hypnotic strategies to treat sleep problems.

      The Embedding Sleep program is an approved CPA Provider (2021) and is authorized to offer 20 CEC credits for members of the Canadian Psychological Association.

      The course starts on May 19th and finishes on June 30th. Course materials include pre-recorded and live online sessions. The live sessions are offered weekly on Wednesdays at 5:30 Mountain time.

      Cost: $397 CAD + appropriate taxes. There is a 10% early bird registration discount if you register before May 1, 2021. Registration closes May 15, 2021.

      Please go to for more information.

    Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD – 4-Day Intensive Online Training Workshop

    May 13-16, 2021

    The Centre for Posttraumatic Stress & Anxiety Treatment
      Location: Online via Zoom
      Times: 8:30 a.m. – 4:30 p.m. (Mountain Standard Time)
      Cost: $850.00 CAD plus G.S.T.
      Cost includes electronic copies of workshop slides and assessment materials, and a certificate of completion from the Center for the Treatment and Study of Anxiety at the University of Pennsylvania. Participants are strongly encouraged to purchase the Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD Therapist Guide and Workbook (Second Edition) prior to the workshop.

      Additional Information:
      (Registration Details and other information that will be helpful for your attendees)
      Prolonged Exposure Therapy for PTSD
      4-Day Intensive Online Training Workshop – May 13 to 16, 2021

      The Centre for Posttraumatic Stress & Anxiety Treatment is pleased to announce a four-day intensive online training workshop in Prolonged Exposure (PE) Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

      PE is a manualized cognitive-behavioural treatment for PTSD with an extensive base of empirical support. Numerous controlled studies have shown that PE significantly reduces the symptoms of PTSD in a wide range of trauma survivors. PE is strongly recommended by every major U.S. and international clinical practice guideline for the treatment of PTSD.

      Topics covered:
      • Assessment, diagnosis and psychopathology of PTSD;
      • Empirically-supported psychotherapeutic treatments for chronic PTSD and their comparative efficacy;
      • Emotional Processing Theory and its relation to PE;
      • Implementation of the components of PE, including psychoeducation, breathing retraining, in vivo exposure to trauma reminders, imaginal exposure to trauma memories, and processing of exposures;
      • Identification and management of obstacles to effective emotional processing, including avoidance, over-engagement, and under-engagement;

      Video vignettes will illustrate the various components of PE, and participants will have an opportunity to practice selected interventions in pairs during break-out sessions.

      Intended audience:
      Licensed mental health professionals or those working under the supervision of a licensed mental health professional. Previous training and experience with cognitive-behavioural therapy is advised.

      Deadline May 1, 2021
      Space is limited to 40 participants

      Fees are fully refundable (less an administration charge of $25 plus G.S.T.) for cancellation requests received prior to May 1, 2021.

      More information:
      780. 800. 5585

      About the trainer:
      David Paul, Ph.D., is a Registered Psychologist and Co-director of the Centre for Posttraumatic Stress & Anxiety Treatment in Edmonton, AB. He is certified as a Prolonged Exposure Therapist, Supervisor, and Trainer by the Center for the Treatment and Study of Anxiety (CTSA) at the University of Pennsylvania. This workshop is recognized by the CTSA, and qualifies toward CTSA certification as a PE Therapist for participants who complete the required additional case consultation.

    Posted in Non classé

    Working with the Inner Critic with Kathy Steele

    May 8th, 2021

    Solutions On Site
      Location: livestream
      Contact Phone Number: (226) 268-2307
      Contact E-Mail:
      Event Link:

      Everyone experiences an inner critic, based on negative messages from authority figures and from ourselves in reaction to unrealistic expectations of perfection and emotions such as fear, shame, contempt, or envy. In this workshop we will explore an integrative approach to understanding and working with a wide range of inner criticism, punishment, and harshness in our clients, but also in ourselves as therapists. We will explore how these inner aspects develop, and understand their several functions of protection, avoidance, and attempts to gain or maintain validation and care from others. Participants will have an opportunity to explore their own inner critic with compassion as a step toward helping clients learn to deal with their own. Our ability to reflect on and shift our own tendencies toward self-criticism and perfectionism will support our capacity to work with these experiences in our clients.

      Early Bird rate: $89 + hst
      A recording of this event will be available to registered participants until June 11th

      To register, visit or call 226-268-2307

    Working with Shame with Kathy Steele

    May 7th, 2021

    Solutions On Site
      Location: livestream
      Contact Phone Number: (226) 268-2307
      Contact E-Mail:
      Event Link:

      Chronic shame is one of the most challenging experiences to resolving in many clients, and therapists often do not feel they have sufficient skills to effectively address it. This workshop will explore several functions of shame and how we defend ourselves against shame in maladaptive ways. A practical integration of cognitive, emotional, somatic, and relational interventions to resolve chronic shame will be discussed. We will also explore specific “antidotes” to shame, as well as ways to help clients (and therapists) develop resilience to shame reactions. Most importantly, we will examine how to be with shame -our own and our clients – with curiosity and compassion, finding ways to create a safe relational space in which to deeply attune with and help repair chronic shame.

      Early Bird rate: $89+hst (1/2 day event), group rates available
      A recording will be made available to registered participants until June 11th.

      To register, visit or call 226-268-2307

    Intro to Nature-Based Therapy

    April 15, 16 & 23 (1:00-4:30pm)

    Nature-Based Therapy Workshop